Oral And Maxillofacial Surgery, Oral medicine and radiology

Condylar Fracture Classifications

What is Condylar Fracture: Fracture of the mandible in the Condylar region which can be due to Direct or indirect contact which can be Unilateral or Bilateral Fracture. Condylar fracture is caused mainly due to Trauma, and the various types of Condylar fractures are caused due to different types of trauma on various locations. In case of Bilateral Condylar fracture the location of trauma is on the Symphysis region of the Mandible when there is a fall mostly face first. In case of unilateral Condylar Fracture the location of injury is either directly on the condyle or on one side of the symphysis. Here we are going to discuss various Classifications of Condylar Fractures given by different Dental Surgeons. Classification of Condylar Fractures

Classifications of Condylar Fractures:

1. Unilateral and Bilateral Condylar Fracture

2. Rowe and Killey’s Classification:

  • Simple fractures of Condyle
  • Compound fractures of Condyle
  • Comminuted fracture associated with Zygomatic arch fractures

3. Classification based on Relationship of Condylar Fragment to Mandible:

  • Undisplaced
  • Deviated
  • Displaced with Medial Overlap of condylar fragment
  • Displaced with lateral overlap of the condylar fragment
  • Anteroposterior overlap is possible
  • No contact between the fragments

4. Classification based on Relationship of Condylar Head to Fossa:

  • No Displacement with normal joint space
  • Displacement is seen with increase in Joint Space

5. Thoma Classification based on direction of displacement of Condyle:

No Displacement of Condyle:

  • Greenstick fracture
  • Intracapsular
  • Extracapsular

Displacement of Condyle is seen:

  • Lateral
  • Medial
  • Forward
  • Backward

Dislocation in Lateral and Medial Direction:

  • Intracapsular
  • Complete fracture dislocation
  • Complete dislodgement of the condyle
  • Dislocation of the fractured part of the head of the condyle

Dislocation in Forward Direction:

  • Anteriorly from the articular eminence
  • Posteriorly from the articular eminence
  • With dislocation and displacement of the meniscus
  • With comminution
  • Old fracture with deformities

6. Subcondylar Fractures:

  • Without displacement of fragment
  • With displacement of fragment

7. Spiessel and Schroll Classification:

  • Nondisplaced fracture
  • Low Neck fracture with Displacement
  • High Neck fracture with displacement
  • Low Neck fracture with dislocation
  • High Neck Fracture with dislocation
  • Head Fracture


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