Favourable and Unfavorable fractures of the mandible

Fractures of the mamdible are considered to be the most common type of fractures in the body and Angle of mandible being the most common in mandible fractures.

Fractures are divided into favorable and un favorable fractures due to the action of muscles attached to the fractured segments of the mandible. The action of the muscles sometimes helps the fracture segment anterior to the fracture line to stay in place and sometimes pulls the anterior or posterior segment away from the opposing bone due to the action of muscles like masseter, lateral pterygoid, medial pterygoid, temporalis, mylohyoid, geniohyoid, genioglossus and anterior belly of digastric which exert a centripetal force on the mandible.Favourable and unfavourabel fractures of mandible

Here we are going to list out the favorable and unfavorable fractures of mandible based on the Origin and Course of fracture line:

horizontal favorable fracture of mandible

horizontal favorable fracture

1. Horizontally favorable fractures: The fracture line starts at the alveolar margin and extends forward or anteriorly and downwards till the lower border of mandible. The Elevator and Depressor Muscles act against each other and help in keeping the bones on either sides of the fracture line to be kept in position which helps in preventing unnecessary movements and decreases time of healing.

horizontal unfavorable fracture of mandible

horizontal unfavorable

2. Horizontally unfavorable fractures: The fracture line starts at the alveolar margin and extends downwards and backwards till the lowest border of mandible is reached. The Elevator and Depressor Muscles act in the same direction and this causes the bones on either sides of the fracture line to move away from each other which causes unnecessary movements and increases time of healing.

Vertical fractures are seen from the top of the mandible or from the occlusal surface.

vertical favorable fracture of mandible

vertical favorable

3. Vertically favorable fractures: Fracture line starts at the buccal or outer border of the mandible and it extends obliquely backwards towards the lingual margin of mandible. The Elevator and Depressor Muscles act against each other and help in keeping the bones on either sides of the fracture line to be keptĀ  in position which helps in preventing unnecessary movements and decreases time of healing.

vertical unfavorable fracture of mandible

vertical unfavorable

4. Vertical unfavorable fractures: Fracture line starts at the lingual or inner border of the mandible extending obliquely backwards towards the buccal margin of the mandible. The Elevator and Depressor Muscles act in the same direction and this causes the bones on either sides of the fracture line to move away from each other which causes unnecessary movements and increases time of healing.

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