Glossary of Periodontal Terms – B

B-CELL: See: Lymphocyte.

BACTEREMIA : The presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. The term is usually qualified as being transient, intermittent, or continuous in nature.

BACTERIA L SUCCESSION: A process of colonization by oral bacteria in a predictable,

temporal pattern, with organisms altering theenvironment, allowing new organisms to become established or certain existing bacteria to achieve dominance.

BACTERICIDE: An agent capable of destroying bacteria. Also termed bacteriocide.

BACTERIA (plural), BACTERIUM (singular): Members of a group of ubiquitous, single-celled

microorganisms that have a procaryotic (primitive) cell type. Many of these are etiologic in diseases that affect all life forms including humans and other animals.

BACTERIOGENIC: Caused by bacteria.

BACTERIOLYTIC: Characterized by or promoting the dissolution or destruction of bacteria.

BACTERIONEMA MATRUCHOTII: Gram-positive, non-motile, facultative, pleomorphic cells associated with subgingival calculus formation.

BACTERIOSTAT: An agent that inhibits or retards the growth and multiplication of bacteria.

B ACTERIOSTATIC: Inhibiting or retarding the growth of bacteria.

BACTEROIDES FORSYTHUS: Gram-negative, nonmotile, obligately anaerobic, non-spore forming, nonpigmented, rod-shaped bacteria found in subgingival plaque and associated with periodontitis.

BACTEROIDES GINGIVALIS: See: Porphyromonas Gingivalis.

BACTEROIDES INTERMEDIUS: See: Prevotella Intermedia.

BACTEROIDES MELANINOGENICUS: See: Prevotella Melaninogenica.

BACTEROIDES SSP.: See: Porphyromonas and Prevotella.

BAL ANCING INTERFERENCE: Tooth contact on the side of the translating condyle during a lateral excursion of the mandible. See: Non-Functional Side.

BAL ANCING SIDE: The side from which the mandible moves during lateral excursion. See also: Non-functional Side.

BARBITURATE: A class of sedative-hypnotic drugs derived from barbituric acid, differing primarily in lipid solubility and hypnotic efficacy.

BASAL BONE: See: Bone, Basal.

BASELINE DATA:\. Measurements taken at the beginning of treatment with which subsequent measurements are compared. 2. In research, a known quantity or measurement with which subsequent data are compared.

BASOPHIL: A granular leukocyte containing vascular amines such as histamine and serotonin.

BED: The surgically-prepared recipient site for a graft.

See also: Graft, Soft Tissue.

BEHCET’S SYNDROME: A condition of uncertain cause, usually seen in men, characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulcers and ocular inflammation.

BENIGN: Usually not threatening to health or life; not malignant.


BENNETT ANGLE: The angle made by the saggital plane and the condyle on the balancing side during lateral mandibular movements.

BETA-GLUCURONIDASE: A lysosomal enzyme present in macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes; important in the degradation of phagocytosed material.

BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS: Antibiotics containing a beta-Iactam ring; the penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams (aztreonam), and carbapenums (imipenem-cilastatin).

BETA-LACTAM ASE: A bacterial enzyme that accounts for the major resistance mechanism to betalactam antibiotics by opening the beta-Iactam ring of penicillins and cephalosporins.

BIFIDOBACTERIUM SSP.: Gram-positive, nonmotile, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found

primarily in marginal and subgingival plaque.

BIFURC ATION: The anatomic area where roots of a two-rooted tooth divide.

BIFURCATION INVASION: The extension of pulpitis or periodontitis into a bifurcation.

BIOACTIVE: Having an effect on or eliciting a response from living tissue.

BIOCOMPATIBLE: Being harmonious with life.

BIOFEEDBACK: A method of behavioural modification in which signals are relayed to the

patient regarding the status of certain physiologic functions such as the heart rate and blood pressure.

BIOINTEGR ATION: See: Integration, Biointegration.

BIOMECH ANICS: The application of mechanical laws to living structures.

BIOPSY: The removal and examination, usually microscopic, of tissue for the purpose of establishing a histopathological diagnosis. May also refer to the tissue specimen obtained by this procedure.

ASPIRATION B.: The aspiration of fluid through aneedle for the purpose of establishing a diagnosis.

EXCISIONAL B.: The removal of an entire lesion, including a significant margin of contiguous, normalappearing tissue for microscopic examination and


INCISI ONAL B.: The removal of a selected portion of a lesion and, if possible, adjacent normal-appearing tissue for microscopic examination and diagnosis.

BITE: The act of incising and crushing between the


BITE GUARD: See: Occlusal Guard.

BITEPLANE (Biteplate): A tooth-and-tissue-borne appliance usually constructed of plastic and wire and worn in the palate; used as a diagnostic or therapeutic adjunct.

BLACK-PIGMENTED: 1. Refers to organisms able to produce a diffusible black pigment upon colonial growth in vitro. The term is generally applied to species within the genus Bacteroides. 2. Dark-colored lesions.

BOLUS: A rounded mass of food or pharmaceutical preparation ready to be swallowed.

BONE: The hard form of connective tissue that constitutes the majority of the skeleton of most vertebrates. It consists of an organic component and an inorganic, or mineral, component. The organic matrix contains a framework of collagenous fibers and is impregnated with the mineral component, chiefly calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite, that

imparts rigidity to bone. The alveolar process supports to alveoli, and consists of cortical bone, cancellous trabeculae, and the alvolar bone proper.

ALVEOLAR B. PROPER: Compact bone that composes the alveolus (tooth socket). Also known as the lamina dura or cribiform plate, the fibers of the periodontal ligament insert into it.

BASAL B.: The bone of the mandible and maxilla exclusive of the alveolar process.

BUNDLE B.: A type of alveolar bone, so-called because of the “bundle” pattern caused by the continuation of the principal (Sharpey’s) fibers into it.

CANCELLOUS B.: Bone having a reticul:=tr, SpO’1gy, or lattice-like structure.

COMPACT B.: Bone substance that is dense and hard.

CORTICAL B.: The compact bone at the surface of any given bone.

BONE FILL: The clinical restoration of bone tissue in a treated periodontal defect. Does not address the presence or absence of histologic evidence of new connective tissue attachment or the formation of a new periodontal ligament.

BONE GRAFT, AUTOGENOUS: See: Graft, Autogenous Bone.

BONE MARROW: See: Marrow.

BONY DEFECTS: See: Periodontal Bony Defects.

BORDER MOVEMENTS: The positions of the mandible at its most extreme limits. These

movements are unique for each individual and are reproducible. All other mandibular movements take place within the limits of the border movements.

BRUXISM (Tooth Grinding, Occlusal N eur osis): A habit of grinding, clenching, or clamping the teeth. The force so generated may damage both tooth and attachment apparatus.

BUCCOVERSION: The deviation of a tooth from the normal alignment of the dental arch toward the buccal mucosa.

BULLA: A vesicle larger than 5 mm in diameter.

BUNDLE BONE: See: Bone, Bundle.

BUTTRESSING BONE: Marginal linear aspect of bone, which may be formed in response to heavy occlusal forces.

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