GPT terms – B

back pressure porosity : porosity produced in dental castings thought to be due to the inability of gases in the mold to escape during the casting procedure

back·ing : a metal support that attaches a veneer to a prosthesis

back·scat·ter or back·scat·ter·ing : see SCATTERED RADIATION

balanced articulation : the bilateral, simultaneous, anterior, and posterior occlusal contact of teeth in centric and eccentric positions—see CROSS ARCH B.A., CROSS TOOTH B.A.

balanced bite: see BALANCED ARTICULATION

balanced occlusal contact: see NONWORKING SIDE OCCLUSAL CONTACTS

balanced occlusion: see BALANCED ARTICULATION

balancing condyle: see NONWORKING SIDE CONDYLE

balancing contact: see BALANCING OCCLUSAL CONTACT

balancing interference : undesirable contact(s) of opposing occlusal surfaces on the nonworking side

balancing occlusal contact: see NONWORKING SIDE OCCLUSAL CONTACTS

balancing occlusal surfaces : the occluding surfaces of dentures on the balancing side (antero posteriorly or laterally) that are developed for the purpose of stabilizing dentures (GPT-4)

balancing side obs: see NONWORKING SIDE

bar : a straight or curvolinear piece of metal or wood that is longer than it is wide. It may have several uses including a lever, barrier, fastener, handle, or support. In prosthodontics, it serves to connect two or more parts of a removable dental prosthesis or fixed dental prosthesis—usage see B. CONNECTOR

bar clasp : a clasp retainer whose body extends from a major connector or denture base, passing adjacent to the soft tissues and approaching the tooth from a gingivo-occlusal direction

bar clasp arm: see BAR CLASP

bar connector : a metal component of greater length than width that serves to connect the parts of a removable partial denture—usage see LABIAL B.C., LINGUAL B.C., PALATAL B.C.

bar retainer : a metal bar usually resting on lingual surfaces of teeth to aid in their stabilization and to act as indirect retainers (GPT-4)—see BAR CONNECTOR

basal : pertaining to or situated near the base

basal bone : the osseous tissue of the mandible and maxillae exclusive of the alveolar process


basal surface: see DENTURE BASE

1base : the act of placing a lining material under a dental restoration

2base : any substance placed under a restoration that blocks out undercuts in the preparation, acts as a thermal or chemical barrier to the pulp, and/or controls the thickness of the overlying restoration—called also base material—usage: adjectives such as insulating b., therapeutic b. may also be used

3base: the portion of a denture that supports the artificial dentition and replaces the alveolar structures and gingival tissues—see DENTURE B.

base material : any substance of which a denture base may be made, such as acrylic resin, vulcanite, polystyrene, or metal (GPT-4)

base metal : any metallic element that does not resist tarnish and corrosion—see NOBLE METAL

base metal alloy : an alloy composed of metals that are not noble

baseplate : a rigid, relatively thin layer of wax, shellac, or thermoplastic (heat, chemical, photo activated) polymer adapted over edentulous surfaces of a definitive cast to form a base which, together with an attached occlusion rim made of wax or similar material, serves as the record base –see RECORD BASE

baseplate wax : a hard wax used for making occlusion rims, waxing dentures, and other dental procedures

basket endosteal dental implant : a perforated, cylindric, endosteal dental implant, the implant body of which is designed in the form of single, double, and/or triple contiguous cylinder(s)

bead-brush technique: a method of applying an auto polymerizing resin mix to a surface whereby a brush tip is first dipped in liquid monomer and then polymer powder forming a small bead that is incrementally applied to form the desired shape

beading: creating an irregular surface by means of stipples, dots, speckles, or the like

beam : a term once used instead of bar with specific reference to the bar connector—usage included cantilever beam, continuous beam, simple beam (GPT-4)

bees’ wax : a low-melting wax obtained from honeycomb and used as an ingredient of many dental impression waxes

Beilby layer : eponym for the molecular disorganized surface layer of a highly polished metal. A relatively scratch-free microcrystalline surface produced by a series of abrasives of decreasing coarseness.

bench set : a stage of resin processing that allows a chemical reaction to occur under the conditions present in the ambient environment; also used to describe the continuing polymerization of impression materials beyond the manufacture’s stated set time

Bennett angle : the angle formed between the sagittal plane and the average path of the advancing condyle as viewed in the horizontal plane during lateral mandibular movements (GPT-4)

Bennett’s movement [Sir Norman Godfrey Bennett, British dental surgeon, 1870-1947]: see LATEROTRUSION

Bennett NG. A contribution to the study of the movements of the mandible. Proc Roy Soc Med (Lond) 1908;1:79-98 (Odont Section)

Bennett’s side shift [Sir Norman Godfrey Bennett, British dental surgeon, 1870-1947]: see MANDIBULAR LATERAL TRANSLATION

Bennett NG A contribution to the study of the movements of the mandible. Proc Roy Soc Med (Lond) 1908;1:79-98 (Odont Section)

1bevel : a slanting edge

2bevel : the process of slanting the finish line and curve of a tooth preparation

Bezold-Brucke effect : the apparent change in hue that accompanies a change in luminance

B.I.D.: acronym for L. Bis In Di’e, twice a day

bifid condyle : a condylar anomaly where an exaggerated central depression exists

bi·fur·ca·tion 1: division into two branches 2: the site where a single structure divides into two parts, as in two roots of a tooth

bilaminar zone: see RETRODISCAL TISSUE

bi·lat·er·al : having or pertaining to two sides

bilateral balanced articulation: also termed balanced articulation, the bilateral, simultaneous anterior and posterior occlusal contact of teeth in centric and excentric positions

bilateral distal extension removable partial denture: a removable dental prosthesis replacing the distal most tooth or teeth on each side of one arch of the mouth—see KENNEDY CLASSIFICATION OF REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURES

bimanual manipulation technique: a method for placement of the mandible using both thumbs on the chin and the fingers on the inferior border of the mandible to guide the jaw into centric relation. First described by Peter Dawson, DDS, St. Petersburg, FL

Dawson PE Temporomandibular joint pain-dysfunction problems can be solved. J Prosthet Dent 1973;29: 100-12

bimaxillary protrusion : a simultaneous dental or skeletal protrusion of both the maxillary and mandibular jaws and/or teeth

bi·meter : a gnathodynamometer equipped with a central bearing plate of adjustable height—see GNATHODYNAMOMETER

bio·ac·cept·ability : the quality of compatibility in a living environment in spite of adverse or unwanted side effects

bio·com·pat·i·ble : capable of existing in harmony with the surrounding biologic environment

bio·feed·back 1: the process of furnishing an individual information, usually in an auditory or visual mode, on the state of one or more physiologic variables such as blood pressure, skin temperature muscle tonus or heart rate; this procedure often enables an individual to gain some voluntary control over the variable being sampled 2: the instrumental process or technique of learning voluntary control over automatically regulated body functions

bio functional orthopedics: see FUNCTIONAL JAW ORTHOPEDICS

bio·in·te·gra·tion: the benign acceptance of a foreign substance by living tissue —see OSSEOUS INTEGRATION

biologic width : the combined width of connective tissue and junctional epithelial attachment formed adjacent to a tooth and superior to the crestal bone

bio·ma·te·ri·al : any substance other than a drug that can be used for any period of time as part of a system that treats, augments, or replaces any tissue, organ, or function of the body

bio·me·chan·ics 1: the application of mechanical laws to living structures, specifically the locomotor systems of the body 2: the study of biology from the functional viewpoint 3: an application of the principles of engineering design as implemented in living organisms—see also DENTAL B

bi·om·e·try : the science of the application of statistical methods to biologic facts, as the mathematical analysis of biologic data

bi·op·sy n, pl -sies : the removal of tissue for histologic examination and diagnosis

bio·sta·tis·tics : the science of the application of statistical methods to biologic facts, as the mathematical analysis of biologic data—see BIOMETRY

biphasic pin fixation : the use of external pin fixation in the treatment of bone fractures


Bisphenol-A glycidyl dimethacrylate: a high molecular weight resin constituent of most dental composite resins


bisque bake : a series of stages of maturation in the firing of ceramic materials relating to the degree of pyro chemical reaction and sintering shrinkage occurring before vitrification (glazing)—called also biscuit bake

bite: the act of incising or crushing between the teeth—see OCCLUSION RECORD

bite analysis: see OCCLUSAL ANALYSIS



bite guard: see OCCLUSAL DEVICE


bite plane: see OCCLUSAL PLANE




biting force: see OCCLUSAL FORCE

biting pressure: see OCCLUSAL FORCE

biting strength: see OCCLUSAL FORCE


blade endosteal dental implant : a faciolingual narrowed, wedge-shaped dental implant body with openings or vents through which tissue may grow


block out : 1: elimination of undesirable undercuts on a cast, 2: the process of applying wax or another similar temporary substance to undercut portions of a cast so as to leave only those undercuts essential to the planned construction of a prosthesis. A blocked out cast may also include other surface modifications needed relative to the construction of the prosthesis

bo·lus : a rounded mass, as a large pill or soft mass of chewed food

blowout fracture : coll expression for a fracture of the orbital floor caused by a sudden increase in intraorbital pressure due to traumatic force

board-certified prosthodontist : in the United States, as defined by the American Board of Prosthodontics, a prosthodontist who has passed the certifying examination administered by the American Board of Prosthodontics

board-eligible prosthodontist : in the United States, as defined by the American Board of Prosthodontics, a prosthodontist whose application for examination for certification is current and has been accepted for examination by the American Board of Prosthodontics

body porcelain: a porcelain blend used for the bulk of a ceramic restoration—comp INCISAL PORCELAIN, GINGIVAL PORCELAIN

boil out: see WAX ELIMINATION

Boley gauge: a caliper-type sliding gauge used for measuring thickness and linear dimension

bond 1: the linkage between two atoms or radicals of a chemical compound 2: the force that holds two or more units of matter together—see SECONDARY BONDS, VANDERWALL’S BOND

bond strength : the force required to break a bonded assembly with failure occurring in or near the adhesive/adherens interface

bonded bridge: see RESIN-BONDED PROSTHESIS

bond·ing 1: joining together securely with an adhesive substance such as cement or glue 2: the procedure of using an adhesive, cementing material or fusible ingredient to combine, unite, or strengthen 3: an adhesive technique in dentistry involving conditioning of enamel and/or dentin so as to create tags in the tooth structure for mechanical retention of restorative material

bonding agent : a material used to promote adhesion or cohesion between two different substances, or between a material and natural tooth structures

bone : the hard portion of the connective tissue which constitutes the majority of the skeleton; it consists of an inorganic or mineral component and an organic component (the matrix and cells); the matrix is composed of collagenous fibers and is impregnated with minerals, chiefly calcium phosphate (approx. 85%) and calcium carbonate (approx. 10%), thus imparting the quality of rigidity—called also osseous tissue—see ALVEOLAR B. BASAL B. CANCELLOUS B. COMPACT B., CORTICAL B.

bone atrophy : bone resorption noted internally by a decrease in density and externally by a reduction in form

bone augmentation: see AUGMENTATION

bone conduction : the conduction of sound to the inner ear through the bones of the skull—called also cranial conduction, osteotympanic conduction and tissue conduction

bone curettage : the surgical shaving or smoothing of the bones external surface

bone expansion : manipulation of a bony ridge by placement of an osteotome to split the cortical ridge and hence enhance bone width

bone factor : relative response of alveolar bone to stimulation or irritation; the ratio of osteogenesis to osteolysis

bone marrow : the soft vascular tissue that fills bone cavities and cancellous bone spaces which consists primarily of fat cells, hematopoietic cells, and osteogenetic reticular cells

Bonwill triangle [William Gibson Arlington Bonwill, American dentist, 1833-1899]: eponym for a 4 inch equilateral triangle bounded by lines connecting the contact points of the mandibular central incisor’s incisal edge (or the mid-line of the mandibular residual ridge) to each condyle (usually its mid point) and from one condyle to the other, first described by Bonwill in 1858 while introducing his Anatomical Articulator

Bonwill WGA. Scientific articulation of the human teeth as founded on geometrical, mathematical and mechanical laws. Dental Items Int 1899;21:617-56, 873-80.

bony ankylosis: the bony union of the components of a joint resulting in complete immobility

bor·der : the circumferential margin, edge or surface; a bounding line, edge, or surface—see DENTURE BORDER

border molding 1: the shaping of the border areas of an impression material by functional or manual manipulation of the soft tissue adjacent to the borders to duplicate the contour and size of the vestibule 2: determining the extension of a prosthesis by using tissue function or manual manipulation of the tissues to shape the border areas of an impression material

border movement : mandibular movement at the limits dictated by anatomic structures, as viewed in a given plane

border position: see POSTERIOR B. P.

border seal : the contact of the denture border with the underlying or adjacent tissues to prevent the passage of air or other substances

border tissue movements‘: the action of the muscles and other tissues adjacent to the borders of a denture

boxing an impression: the enclosure (box) of an impression to produce the desired size and form of the base of the cast and to preserve desired details

boxing wax : wax used for boxing an impression

brac·ing : the resistance to horizontal components of masticatory force

brack·et : an orthodontic device attached to an individual tooth to hold arch wires

brazing investment : an investment having a binding system consisting of acidic phosphate such as monoammonium phosphate and a basic oxide such as magnesium oxide

brazing material : an alloy suitable for use as a filler material in operations with which dental alloy(s) is/are joined to form a dental restoration

braze : to join with a nonferrous alloy that melts at a lower temperature than that of the metals being joined

breakdown potential : the last noble potentia where pitting and/or crevice corrosion will initiate and propagate



brittle 1: easily broken or shattered; fragile or crisp, 2: prone to fracture or failure; the fracture that occurs when the proportional limit of a material is exceeded

brux·ism 1: the parafunctional grinding of teeth 2: an oral habit consisting of involuntary rhythmic or spasmodic nonfunctional gnashing, grinding, or clenching of teeth, in other than chewing movements of the mandible, which may lead to occlusal trauma—called also tooth grinding, occlusal neurosis

brux·o·ma·nia : the grinding of teeth occurring as a neurotic habit during the waking state (GPT-4)

buc·cal : pertaining to or adjacent to the cheek

buccal flange : the portion of the flange of a denture that occupies the buccal vestibule of the mouth

buccal vestibule : the portion of the oral cavity that is bounded on one side by the teeth, gingiva, and alveolar ridge (in the edentulous mouth, the residual ridge) and on the lateral side by the cheek posterior to the buccal frenula

buccolingual relationship: any position of reference relative to the tongue and cheeks

buc·co·ver·sion n: a deviation toward the cheek


BULL: acronym for Buccal of the Upper, Lingual of the Lower (cusps); applies to Clyde H. Schuyler’s rules for occlusal adjustment of a normally related dentition in which those cusps contacting in maximum intercuspation (mandibular buccal and maxillary lingual) are favored by adjustment of those cusps that are not in occlusal contact in maximum intercuspation (maxillary buccal and mandibular lingual)—called also the BULL RULE

bur : a steel or tungsten carbide rotary cutting instrument

bur head : the cutting portion of a dental bur

bur head length: the axial dimension of the bur head

bur head shape : the geometrical outline form of the cutting surface edges, usually described successively by proximity from the shank to the tip end

bur shank : that component of a dental bur which fits into the hand piece; the shaft section of the dental bur that may be friction gripping or latch-type in form

bur·nish : to make shiny or lustrous by rubbing; also to facilitate marginal adaptation of restorations by rubbing the margin with an instrument

bur·nish·ibil·i·ty: the ease with which a material can be burnished

burn out : see WAX ELIMINATION

butt : to bring any two flat-ended surfaces into contact without overlapping, as in a butt joint

butt margin: see SHOULDER FINISH LINE

button implant: see MUCOSAL IMPLANT

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