GPT Terms – L

lab·i·al 1: of or pertaining to the lip 2: toward the lip

labial bar: see LABIAL BAR CONNECTOR

labial bar connector : a major connector located labial to the dental arch

labial flange : the portion of the flange of a denture that occupies the labial vestibule of the mouth

labial splint : a device of plastic, metal, or both, made to conform to the outer aspect of the dental arch and used in the management of jaw and facial injuries

labial vestibule : the portion of the oral cavity that is bounded on one side by the teeth, gingiva, and alveolar ridge (in the edentulous mouth, the residual ridge) and on the other by the lips anterior to the buccal frenula

la·bio·ver·sion : labial position of a tooth beyond the normal arch form

lamina dura : the layer of compact bone forming the wall of a tooth alveolus

land area: the portion of a dental cast that extends beyond the impression’s replica surface laterally that defines the area between the end of the replica’s surface and the cast

laplap·pedlap·ping : to fold over or around something; to wind about lb: to envelop entirely 2: to fold over in successive layers 3: to place over and cover a part of another 4a: to dress smooth or to polish to a high degree 4b: to fit or shape by working two surfaces together with or without abrasives until a very close fit is achieved—lap·per

laser : acronym for Light Amplification by Simulated Emission of Radiation: a device that transforms light of various frequencies into an intense, small, and nearly non-divergent beam of monochromatic radiation, within the visible range

laser therapy : the use of laser energy in the treatment of tissue pathosis

laser welding : the joining of metal components through the use of heat generated with a laser beam

late closing click : the sound emanating from the temporomandibular joint that occurs just prior to termination of closure in some patients with anteriorly displaced disks

late opening click : the sound emanating from the temporomandibular joint that occurs just prior to termination of opening in some patients with anteriorly displaced disks

lat·er·al 1: positions either right or left of the midsagittal plane 2: denotes a position farther from the median plane or midline of the body or structure


lateral condylar inclination : the angle formed by the path of the moving condyle within the horizontal plane compared with the median plane (anterior-posterior movement) and within the frontal plane when compared with the horizontal plane (superior-inferior movement)—see LATEROTRUSION

lateral condylar path : the path of movement of the condyle-disk assembly in the joint cavity when a lateral mandibular movement is made

lateral incisor : the second incisor

lateral interocclusal record : a registration of the positional relationship of opposing teeth or arches made in either a right or left lateral position of the mandible

lateral mandibular movement: see MANDIBULAR LATERAL TRANSLATION

lateral mandibular relation : the relationship of the mandible to the maxillae in a position to the left or right of the midsagittal plane

lateral movement : a movement from either right or left of the midsagittal plane (GPT-4)

lateral protrusion: see LATEROPROTRUSION

lateral relation: the relation of the mandible to the maxillae when the lower jaw is in a position to either side of centric relation (GPT-4)

lateral side shift: see MANDIBULAR TRANSLATION

lat·ero·de·tru·sion : lateral and downward movement of the condyle on the working side—see LATEROTRUSION

lat·ero·pro·tru·sion : a protrusive movement of the mandibular condyle in which there is a lateral component

lat·ero·re·tru·sion : lateral and backward movement of the condyle on the working side

lat·ero·sur·tru·sion : lateral and upward movement of the condyle on the working side—see LATEROTRUSION

lat·ero·tru·sion \l?t-ar-?-tr???shun\ n: condylar movement on the working side in the horizontal plane. This term may be used in combination with terms describing condylar movement in other planes, for example, laterodetrusionlateroprotrusionlateroretrusion, and laterosurtrusion

Le Fort fracture [Leon Clement Le Fort, French surgeon, 1829-1893]: eponym for a midfacial fracture, classified into three categories (I, II, III)

Le Fort I fracture: eponym for a horizontal segmented fracture of the alveolar process of the maxilla, in which the teeth are usually contained within the detached portion

Le Fort II fracture: eponym for a pyramidal fracture of the midfacial skeleton with the principal fracture lines meeting at an apex at or near the superior aspect of the nasal bones

Le Fort III fracture: eponym for a craniofacial dysjunction fracture in which the entire maxilla and one or more facial bones are completely separated from the craniofacial skeleton

leaf gauge : a set of blades or leaves of increasing thickness used to measure the distance between two points or to provide metered separation

lengthening of the clinical crown : a surgical procedure designed to increase the extent of supragingival tooth structure for restorative or esthetic purposes by apically positioning the gingival margin, removing supporting bone, or both

LET: acronym for Linear Energy Transfer: the energy dissipation of ionizing radiation over a given linear distance. Highly penetrating radiations such as gamma rays cause low ion concentration and thus have a relatively low LET, x-rays and beta particles exhibit intermediate LET, and alpha particles have a high LET

light : the aspect of electromagnetic radiation of which the human observer is aware through the visual sensations that arise from the stimulation of the retina of the eye

light source : an object that emits light or radiant energy to which the human eye is sensitive. The emission of a light source can be described by the relative amount of energy, emitted at each wavelength in the visible spectrum; the emission may be described in terms of its correlated color temperature

light·ness 1: achromatic dimension necessary to describe the three-dimensional nature of color, the others being hue and saturation. The lightness dimension may also be called brightness. In the Munsell Color Order System, the lightness dimension is called value 2:perception by which white objects are distinguished from gray and light objects from dark ones; equivalent to shading in grays

lim·bus: a border or interface especially if marked by a difference in color or structure between adjoining parts

line angle : the point of convergence of two planes in a cavity preparation

linear coefficient of thermal expansion: the fractional change in length of a given material per degree change in temperature

line of occlusion : the alignment of the occluding surfaces of the teeth as viewed in the horizontal plane—see OCCLUSAL PLANE

linear occlusion : the occlusal arrangement of artificial teeth, as viewed in the horizontal plane, wherein the masticatory surfaces of the mandibular posterior artificial teeth have a straight, long, narrow occlusal form resembling that of a line, usually articulating with opposing monoplane teeth.

lin·gual : pertaining to the tongue; next to or toward the tongue

lingual apron: see LINGUAL PLATE

lingual bar: see LINGUAL BAR CONNECTOR

lingual bar connector : a major connector of a partial removable dental prosthesis located lingual to the dental arch

lingual flange : the portion of the flange of a mandibular denture that occupies the alveololingual sulcus

lingual inclination : deviation of the coronal portion of a tooth from the vertical plane toward the tongue

lingual plate: the portion of the major connector of a partial removable dental prosthesis contacting the lingual surfaces of the natural teeth—also spelled linguoplate

lingual rest : a metallic extension of a partial removable dental prosthesis framework that fits into a prepared depression within an abutment tooth’s lingual surface

lingual rest seat : the depression prepared on the lingual surface of an abutment tooth to accept the metal rest of a partial denture (the lingual rest)

lingual splint : a dental splint conforming to the inner aspect of the dental arch

lingual strap: see LINGUAL PLATE

lingualized occlusion : first described by S. Howard Payne, DDS, in 1941, this form of denture occlusion articulates the maxillary lingual cusps with the mandibular occlusal surfaces in centric working and nonworking mandibular positions. The term is attributed to Earl Pound

lin·guo·c·clu·sion : an occlusion in which a tooth or group of teeth is located lingual to its normal position

lin·guo·ver·sion : lingual or palatal position of a tooth beyond the normal arch form

lip line: see HIGH L.L., LOW L.L.

lip switch operation : tissues borrowed from one lip and transferred to the other; also used to describe a modified vestibuloplasty procedure—see also ABBE FLAP, ESTLANDER’S OPERATION


lobe: a curved or rounded projection or division, especially of a body organ or part

local etiologic factors: the environmental influences that may be implicated in the causation, modification, and/or perpetuation of a disease entity

localization film : a radiograph made with radiopaque markers to localize the position of a body (i.e., a tumor) relative to external landmarks

long axis : a theoretical line passing lengthwise through the center of a body

long centric articulation: see INTERCUSPAL CONTACT AREA

longitudinal axis: see SAGITTAL AXIS

lost-wax casting technique:—also called investment casting. The casting of a metal into a mold produced by surrounding (investing) an expendable (wax) pattern with a refractory slurry that sets at room temperature, after which the pattern is removed through the use of heat

low lip line 1: the lowest position of the inferior border of the upper lip when it is at rest 2: the lowest position of the superior border of the lower lip during smiling or voluntary retraction

lower impression : an impression of the mandibular jaw or dental structures (GPT-4)—see MANDIBULAR IMPRESSION

lower ridge slope 1: the slope of the mandibular residual ridge in the second and third molar region as seen from the buccal side (GPT-1) 2: the portion of the lower residual ridge, either lingual, labial, or buccal, between the crest of the ridge and the mucobuccal fold or flexion line of the peripheral tissues (GPT-1)

Lucia jig[Victor O. Lucia, U.S. prosthodontist]: eponym—see ANTERIOR PROGRAMMING DEVICE

lug : something that projects away from an object and is generally used as a support or for connection to a body

lu·mi·nance : the intensity of light per unit area

1lute : a substance, such as cement or clay, used for placing a joint or coating a porous surface to make it impervious to liquid or gas— see CEMENT

2lute lut·ed lut·ing : to fasten, attach, or seal— see CEMENT

luting agent: any material used to attach or cement indirect restorations to prepared teeth

lux·a·tion : an abnormal anterior displacement of the mandibular condyle out of the glenoid fossa that is self-reducing

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