Muscles responsible for Movements and Action of Tongue and their nerve supply

Tongue is one of the most powerful muscle of the body and the movements of tongue are very important in speaking and swallowing or deglutation of food and the movements of tongue are controlled by Intrinsic and Extrinsic muscles.

Action of Intrinsic muscles on movements of tongue:

Superior Logitudnal muscle:

  • Action: Shortens the tongue and makes dorsum of the tongue concave

Inferior Longitudnal muscle:

  • Action: Shortens the tongue and makes the dorsum of the tongue convex

Verticalis muscle:

  • Action: Broadens the tongue and Flattens the Tongue

Transverse muscle:

  • Action: Narrows the tongue and Elongates the constricted tongue

extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of tongue and their function

Action of Extrinsic muscles on movements of tongue:

Genioglossus muscle:

  • Acion: Upper fibers retract the lip, Middle fibers depress the tongue and the lower fibers protrude the tongue

It forms the main bulk o the tongue and it is called the safety muscle of tongue

Hyoglossus muscle:

  • Action: Depress the tongue and makes, Dorsum of the tongue is made convex, Hyoglossus muscle also acts by retracting and protruding the tongue.

Palatoglossus muscles:

  • Action: It pulls the root or posterior base of the tongue upwards, and thus approximating the palatoglossal arches closing the oropharyngeal isthmus helping in swallowing or deglutation.

Styloglossus muscle

  • Action: It also helps in swallowing by pulling the upwards and backwards.

Nerve supply to Extrinsic and Intrinsic muscles of tongue:

  • Hypoglossal nerve supplies: Genioglossus, Hyoglossus, Stylogossus, Superior longitudnal, Inferior longitudnal muscle, Verticalis, Transverse
  • Cranial part of the Accessory nerve through pharyngeal plexus supplies the Palatoglossus muscle.

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