Primary and Secondary Lesions of the Oral cavity

Primary Lesions:

  • Macule
  • Papule
  • Nodule
  • Vesicles
  • Bullar tumors
  • Wheals

Secondary Lesions:

  • Erosions
  • Ulcers
  • Fissures
  • Desqumations (excoriations)
Primary and Secondary lesions of the oral cavity

Primary and Secondary lesions of the oral cavity

Primary lesions of Oral Cavity:

MACULE:
Well circumscribed flat lesions that are noticeable due to the change in color of Skin or Mucosa.
Red- Inflamation
Pigmented- Melanin, Haemosiderin, foreign material.
Ex: Melanotic Macule

PAPULES:
These are solid lesions raised above the Skin or Mucosal surface and are smaller than 1 cm in Diameter.
Ex: Erythema multiformae, lupus erythematous, Sarcoidosis
Yellow-White Papules seen in Hyperplastic Candidiasis.

PLAQUES:

These are solid raised lesions that are greater than 1cm in diameter, These are also referred to as large papules.

Also defined as an elevated, plateau-like lesion that is greater in its diameter than in its depth

NODULES:

The lesions present deeper in the dermis or mucosa, which are generally wider than they are high. They might sometimes protrude above the skin or oral mucosa.

Ex: Oral Mucosal Nodule.

VESICLES:

These are elevated blisters seen on the surface of mucosa, which contain clear fluid and are less than 1 cm in diameter.

Ex: Atopic Dermatitis, Chicken Pox, Herpes Zooster, Herpes Simplex.

BULLAE:

These are elevated blisters containing clear fluid greater than 1 cm in Diameter.

( or )

A rounded or irregularly shaped blister containing serous or seropurulent fluid, equal to or greater than 1 cm in Diameter

Ex: Bullous Phemphigoid.

PUSTULE:

A pustule is a small elevation of the skin containing cloudy or purulent material usually consisting of necrotic inflammatory cell infiltrate.

(or)

Small, inflamed, pus filled, Blisters seen in the oral cavity.

Ex: Rare Oral Phemphigus presenting as Pustules.

WHEALS:

A rounded or flat-topped, pale red papule or plaque that is characteristically evanescent or disappearing with 24 to 48 hours

Secondary Lesions Of the Oral cavity:

EROSIONS:

Red lesions often caused by the rupture of vesicles or Bullae or Trauma.

Ex: Erosive Lichen Planus
ULCERS:

These are well circumscribed, often depressed lesions with an epithelial defect that is covered by a fibrin clot, causing a yellow-white appearance.

Ex: Apthous Ulcer
FISSURES:

A deep furrow, cleft, or slit.
A developmental break or fault in the enamel of a tooth.

Ex: Enamel fissure
DESQUAMATION (EXCORIATIONS):

Shedding of the outer layers of the skin.

(or)

A punctate or linear abrasion produced by mechanical means (often scratching),

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