Radiographic Techniques and their Uses in Oral Surgery

Radiographs are the most important Diagnostic aids in Dental practice using the help of which dentists decide the Treatment plan and can consider various options.


In Oral Surgery Radiographs play a vital role in determining the treatment plan.

Various Radiographic Techniques used in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and their Uses:

  1. Intraoral periapical View
  2. Occlusal View
  3. Orthopantamographs:
  4. Lateral Oblique View
  5. Water’s view or Occipitomental View
  6. Trans Orbital View
  7. Trans Cranial View
  8. Lateral Cephalogram
  9. Postero-Anterior view of Skull
  10. Sub-Mento Vertex View (Jug handle view)
  11. Chest X-ray
  12. Tomogram

Intraoral periapical View structures seen and its uses in Oral Surgery:

This Radiographic View is used whenthe following anatomic structures are to be considered fro treatment:

  • Third Molar
  • Periapical View of all the teeth in both the arches
  • Periapical view of maxillary sinus relation to the teeth
  • Fractured root apices
  • dentoalveolar fractures

Occlusal View structures seen and its uses in Oral Surgery:

This the radiographic technique where the view is occlusal and the structures seen are:

  • Mandibular floor of the mouth
  • Lingual aspect of the mandibular lower arch contour and continuity of the Upper Arch
  • Palatine Tori
  • Tumors of the Mandibular arch
  • To Locate the presence of foreign bodies in the lower arch
  • To confirm the presence of exact position of the foreign body weather Buccal or Lingual
  • To determine bucco lingual position of impacted tooth
  • To determine expansion of cortical plate
  • Evaluation of fracture of jaws with displacement

Structures seen in Orthopantamograph and its uses in Oral Surgery:

With this radiograph you can view both the mandibular and maxillary arches which will be shown in buccal view and the following structures can be viewed with this radiograph:

  • Temporo Mandibular Joint
  • Posterior and Anterior Border Of Ramus
  • Ramus of Mandible
  • Angle of Mandible
  • Body Of Mandible
  • Continuity of inferior border of Mandible
  • Pterygomandibular fissures
  • Maxillary Tuberosity
  • Maxillary Sinuses
  • Teeth
  • Will be very helpful in determining the fractures in Ramus, angle and body of mandible

Lateral Oblique View structures seen and its uses in Oral Surgery:

  • Mandibular Ramus Projection demonstrates mandibular Ramus from angle to condyle
  • Third molars of maxilla and mandible
  • Mandibular body projection demonstrates the premolar – molar region and inferior border of mandible

Water’s view or Occipitomental View structures seen and its uses in Oral Surgery:

This Radiographic view gives you a very detailed view of all the sinuses, introduced by Water hence named Water’s view. The various structures which can be viewed are:

  • Maxillary Sinus
  • Frontal Sinus
  • Ethmoidal Sinus
  • Frontozygomatic suture
  • Infra and supra orbital rims
  • Nasal Cavity
  • Position of coronoid process of mandible between maxilla and zygomatic arch

Trans Orbital View structures seen and its uses in Oral Surgery:

Also called as Zimmer or Transmaxillary projection which is mainly concentrating on the TMJ. The following structures are visible.

  • Mandibular condylar neck
  • Used for diagnosis of Sub-condylar fractures
  • Latero medial articulating surfaces of the condyle and articular eminence and condylar neck can be seen

Trans Cranial View structures seen and its uses in Oral Surgery:

The structures which can be seen to determine the treatment plan are:

  • Glenoid Fossa
  • Articular Eminence
  • Condylar head
  • The relation of Articular eminence to Condylar head
  • This technique is taken in 2 aspects one with clsed mouth and the other with an open mouth to determine
  • ¬†TMJ joint internal derangements
  • TMJ Dislocation and
  • TMJ Subluxation

Lateral Cephalogram structures seen and its uses in Oral Surgery:

It is a technique where the radiograph is taken from the side to view the following structures:

  • Skull
  • Facial Bones
  • Paranasal Sinus
  • Hard Palate
  • Nasopharyngeal tissue
  • Soft Tissue Orifices of Face

Postero-Anterior view of Mandible structures seen and its uses in Oral Surgery:

The structures seen are

  • Body of mandible
  • Inferior and Anterior vorder of Ramus
  • Condylar Neck
  • Nasal Cavity

Postero-Anterior view of Skull structures seen and its uses in Oral Surgery:

  • Skull
  • Frontal Sinus
  • Ethoidal Sinuses
  • Nasal Fossa
  • Orbits

Sub-Mento Vertex View (Jug handle view) structures seen and its uses in Oral Surgery:

The various structes which can be viewed to proceed with the treatment plan are:

  • Base of Skull
  • Position and orientation od condyle
  • Sphenoid sinus
  • Inferior border of mandible
  • Lateral wall of maxillary sinus
  • Zygomatic arch
  • Lateral pterygoid plates
  • Foramina at the base of skull

 

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