Human Anatomy Archive

Classification of Cranial nerves based on Sensory, Motor and their Functions

There are 12 cranial nerves which supply the head and neck region and have varied functions of purely sensory, purely motor and mixed type. Vagus is the only nerve which supplies to parts other than head and neck region like Lungs, Heart, Intestine and Stomach. I have divided the Functions of the 12 cranial nerves [&hellip

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Parotid Fascia – Borders and location

Parotid fascia is the superficial layer of deep cervical fascia which splits to enclose the parotid gland. The Fascia is made up of two layers – a Superficial layer or lat. Lamina superficials and a deeper layer or lat. Lamina Profunda. The Parotid fascia covering the lateral surface of the gland is called as parotid [&hellip

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Types of Nerve Fibres and their Functions – Local and General Anaesthesia

Action and Functions of Nerve Fibres is very important in understanding their action and the use of Local and General Anaesthetics in controlling Pain, Proprioception, Touch and Pressure. Each Nerve Fibre has a specific function and the Anaesthetic agents should be such that they act on those nerve fibres to get the desired effect. It is important to note [&hellip

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Muscles responsible for Movements and Action of Tongue and their nerve supply

Tongue is one of the most powerful muscle of the body and the movements of tongue are very important in speaking and swallowing or deglutation of food and the movements of tongue are controlled by Intrinsic and Extrinsic muscles. Action of Intrinsic muscles on movements of tongue: Superior Logitudnal muscle: Action: Shortens the tongue and [&hellip

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Blood supply, Lymphatic Drainage and Nerve supply to the Salivary Glands

Salivary Glands are mostly divided into Major and Minor Salivary glands, the major salivary glands are mainly Parotid, Submandibular and Sublingual glands and  Location of Minor Salivary Glands Parotid gland: Nerve supply – Auricotemporal nerve Blood supply – External Carotid artery via the Posterior Auricular artery and the Transverse facial Venous Drainage – Retromandibular vein [&hellip

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Teeth involved in various types of Space infections and Space infection caused by Nerve Blocks

Space infection is infection spreading to the Facial Spaces in the head and neck region from one or many teeth infected. The Fascial spaces are filled with Loose Connective tissue readily breakdown in presence of even little amount of infection and a huge swelling can be seen. The List of Fascial Spaces and their Boundries [&hellip

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Hormones released from Pituitary Gland and their functions

Pituitary Gland: It is also called as Hypohysis. It is located in a saddle-shaped space in the Sphenoid Bone called the Sella Tursica which is located in the base of the brain in the frontal lobe. The hormones secreted by the Pituitary gland are either secreted by the Hypothalamus or are stimulated by the hormones [&hellip

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5 Layers of Scalp

Scalp is the soft tissue layer covering the Bony vault over the brain. Scalp is a fusion of 5 layers of soft tissue. S: Skin C: Superfacial Fascia or Sub Cutaneous Tissue A: Musculo Aponeurotic layer L: Loose sub Aponeurotic layer P: Periosteum S – Skin: It is the layer of the scalp which consists [&hellip

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Structures Passing through Foramina of Skull

What is a Foramen: An Opening or Orifice in the skeleton through which structures like Nerves, Arteries, Veins, Muscles and Ligaments pass. There are multiple such foramens on the lower aspect of the skull which act as pathways for the various structures which pass through them. The Cranium is divided into three parts – Anterior [&hellip

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Cell Components and Functions of Cell Organelles

A Cell is the smallest structural and functional unit of the body. Which is the Basis of all the functions of the body. A Cell is made up of majorly 2 components: Central nucleus surrounded by Nuclear membrane Cytoplasm covered by Plasma membrane containing Cytoplasmic Organelles Cell components and their Functions: Plasma Membrane: Main function [&hellip

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What are the muscles responsible for Facial Expressions

Facial Expressions is an important part in every person’s life from the start of the day till you sleep showing what you feel etc and it also helps in understand the other person’s feeling without a word being uttered.  There are close to 12 types of facial expressions which are possible which have been listed [&hellip

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Masticatory Reflexes or Jaw Reflexes

Reflex is a highly stereotyped automated response to a specific stimulus. Masticatory reflexes are a type of stretch reflexes brought about by activation of muscle spindles in the muscles associated with the Mandibular Jaw. There are multiple types of Jaw reflexes which are seen during normal speech, any trauma, chewing etc. Types of Jaw Reflexes: Jaw [&hellip

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Masticatory Cycle Phases

The pathway of mandible during chewing is referred to as chewing cycle. Characterized by opening, closing, retrusive, protrusive & lateral jaw movements The chewing cycle can take many forms; classically tear drop shape when viewed in frontal or saggital plane There are about 15 chews in a series from the time of food entry until [&hellip

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What are Masticatory Forces

Masticatory Forces are the Forces exerted during mastication with variations in region, persons, age, sex, food habits & race. The muscles of mastication are the main cause for these forces they contract and relax and lead to the production of force for Mastication. It is measured and sometimes termed as Bite force as it is [&hellip

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