Cell Components and Functions of Cell Organelles

A Cell is the smallest structural and functional unit of the body. Which is the Basis of all the functions of the body.

A Cell is made up of majorly 2 components:

  1. Central nucleus surrounded by Nuclear membrane
  2. Cytoplasm covered by Plasma membrane containing Cytoplasmic Organelles

Cell Organelles FunctionCell components and their Functions:

Plasma Membrane:

  • Main function is Protection
  • Prevents entry of harmful Substances holds cell together
  • Transport of Metabolites cell to cell recognition and communication
  • Plays an major role in Immune response
  • Involved in Hormonal Action
  • Helps in Conduction of Action potential

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER):

  • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum – Protein Synthesis
  • Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum – Steroid and Lipid Synthesis


  • It plays a major role n the terminal parts of Protein Synthesis

Golgi complex or Golgi apparatus:

  • Stores Secretions
  • Modifies Secretions
  • Packages Secretions


  • It is termed as the power house of the Cell
  • Plays an major part in the terminal stages of Aerobic Respiration
  • Synthesizes ATP – hence called the power house of cell as ATP is the primary source of Energy
  • Manufactures Polysaccharides

Pinocytotic Vesicles:

  • Uptake of Dissolved Materials


  • These are termed as the “Disposal Units” of the cell
  • Contains Hydrolytic Enzymes which Digest materials
  • They are the organelles which are the center of “Autolysis” or Intracellular Breakdown.


  • Help in Division of Cells
  • During Cell division they separate and move to form the poles of the nuclear spindle

Micro Tubules:

  • Are the main organelles which help in movement and Support of the Cell
  • Beating of Sperm Tail or Cilia
  • Movement of Chromosomes in cell division

Micro Filaments:

  • Also play part in Movement and Support
  • They help in General Floating motion of Cytoplasm (Cytoplasmic Streaming)
  • Contraction of Muscle Fibers
  • Microvilli


Nuclear Membrane: Pores in the membrane serve as Transport Channels Site of Synthesis of RNA and DNA

Nucleoli and Chromatin Material: The information required to synthesize proteins is coded in the DNA. The DNA is copied into “Messenger RNA” molecules. These pass into the cytoplasm where the protein synthesis takes place.

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