Dental Diseases or Oral Manifestations of Thyroid and Pituitary Conditions

Thyroid conditions have become very common in the human population due to many reasons, every alternate person mainly females are affected with various thyroid conditions and as a Dentist, it is important for us to learn the various effects of Thyroid and Pituitary problems seen on the Oral cavity. The Oral manifestations of Thyroid and Pituitary problems are huge as the effects are seen right from development or Eruption of teeth and also seen in developed teeth. The other parts of the oral cavity are also affected in some cases.

It is important to keep in mind that certain types of ORal manifestations can be caused due to any Thyroid condition or Pituitary condition and in some cases, the problem can be fixed by treating the underlying Endocrine problem and in most cases Dental treatments are necessary.

Dental diseases associated with Thyroid conditions:

  1. Hyper Thyroidism:
  2. Hypo Thyroidism:
  3. Hypo Para Thyroidism:

Along with thyroid conditions, Pituitary conditions also lead to many Oral or Dental conditions which we will be listing out:

  1. Hypopituitarism
  2. Hyperpituitarism

Here we are going to discuss the Dental problems or Oral Manifestations associated with Thyroid and Pituitary gland diseases and not the general clinical features.

Oral manifestations of thyroid disorders - Hyper Thyroidism, Hypo Thyroidism and Hypo para Thyroidism

Dental conditions due to Hyper Thyroidism:

  1. Formation and Development of teeth is affected
  2. No effect on the structural integrity of the tooth (Enamel or Dentin)

Dental conditions due to Hypo Thyroidism:

Hypo Thyroidism gives rise to 2 conditions:

1. Cretinism:

  1. Delayed Eruption of Teeth
  2. Exfoliation of deciduous teeth
  3. Macroglossia: Due to Edema of fluid, Protruding tongue
  4. Thick Lips
  5. Over Development of maxilla and Under Development of Mandible leading to Malocclusion

2. Myxedema:

  1. Non-Pitting Edema seen in Tongue, Lips, and Eyelids
  2. Under Development of Maxilla and Mandible
  3. Loss of expressions in the face

Dental disease/problems or Oral Manifestations with Hypo Para Thyroidism:

  1. Enamel Hypoplasia and Aplasia – Seen when Hypo para thyroidism seen before teeth are formed
  2. Alteration in Eruption time and sequence of Teeth
  3. Dentin Dysplasia
  4. Impacted Teeth
  5. Short Blunt roots
  6. Partial Anodontia

Dental disease/problems or Oral Manifestations with Hypo Pituitarism:

  1. Delayed Exfoliation of Primary or Deciduous teeth
  2. Delayed Eruption of Permanent Teeth
  3. Crowding of Permanent Teeth
  4. Under Development of Maxilla and Mandible leading to Malocclusion
  5. Smaller Crown and Root Lengths

Oral manifestations of Pituitary disorders

Dental problems with Hyper Pituitarism:

The 2 conditions seen in Hyper Pituitarism are

Acromegaly: After closure of Epiphysis:

  1. Large Mandible leading to Skeletal Class III malocclusion
  2. Macroglossia
  3. Thick Lips (Negroid Appearance)
  4. Progressive Enlargement of Mandible – Leading to Loose dentures

Gigantism: Before Closure of Epiphysis

  1. Macroglossia
  2. Longer Roots
  3. Prognathic Mandible
  4. Hypercementosis of Teeth seen on Radiographic examination
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