Dosage of Local Anesthetic Agents – Types and Mode of Action

Local anesthetic agents should be given carefully because of the various adverse reactions to many Health conditions. It is very confusing if you are a Dental student or new to Practice to calculate the concentrations of Local Anesthetic agents. I how this post helps the students in their Exam Viva and also the Dental Practitioners in their Daily practice.

The following points about LA Dosage are explained in the post below:

  1. What is the Maximum dose of LA which can be used with a Vasoconstrictor
  2. What is the Maximum dose of LA which can be used without a Vasoconstrictor
  3. What is the Maximum dose of LA which can be used with a Vasoconstrictor at 1:1,00,000 concentration
  4. What is the Maximum dose of LA which can be used with a Vasoconstrictor at 1: 50,000 concentration

Dosage Of Local Anesthesia:

1) Safety dose of 2% Lignocaine is 4.5mg/kg without a Vasoconstrictor

  • Without a Vasoconstrictor 300 mg (maximum dose)

2) Safety dose of 2% Lignocaine is 7mg/kg with a Vasoconstrictor

  • With a Vasoconstrictor – 500 mg (maximum dose)

3) As 1ml of 2% Lignocaine contains 20mg – Where the Maximum safety dose being 300 mg

  • So 15 ml of Drug can be given safely

4) 1:1,00,000 concentration means 1 part of Adrenaline is 1,00,000 parts of Solution

  • Safety Dose of Adrenaline for Dental Use in noraml patients is 0.2 mg – which means 20 ml of LA can be given to normal patients containing Adrenaline
  • For cardiac Patients the safety dose of Adrenaline is 0.04mg – Which means 4ml of LA can be given to Patients with cardiac problems containing Adrenaline

5) If the concentration of LA is 1:50,000 – 10 ml of LA can be given safely

 

Types of Local Anesthetic Agents Used and their Mode of Action:

Lignocaine – Also called as Lidocaine Xylocaine etc. It is the most commonly used Local Anesthetic agent in Dentistry. 

  • Onset: Rapid
  • Duration of Action: 120 (without Epinephrine), 240 minutes (with Epinephrine)
  • Maximum Dose – 4.5mg/kg (without Epinephrine), 7mg/kg (with Epinephrine)

Mepivacaine:  

  • Onset: Rapid
  • Duration of Action: 180 mins (without Epinephrine), 360 mins (with Epinephrine)
  • Maximum Dose – 5mg/kg (without Epinephrine), 7mg/kg (with Epinephrine)

Bupivacaine:

  • Onset: Slow
  • Duration of Action: 240 mins (without Epinephrine), 8 hours (with Epinephrine)
  • Maximum Dose – 2.5 mg/kg (without Epinephrine), 3 mg/kg (with Epinephrine)

Levobupivacaine:

  • Onset: Medium
  • Duration of Action: 180 mins (without Epinephrine), 360 mins (with Epinephrine)
  • Maximum Dose – 2-3 mg/kg 

Ropivacaine

  • Onset: Medium
  • Duration of Action: 240 to 360 mins (without Epinephrine), 8 hrs to 12 hrs (with Epinephrine)
  • Maximum Dose – 2 mg/kg or 400 mg in 12 hours

Procaine:

  • Onset: Slow
  • Duration of Action: 90 mins (without Epinephrine), 360 mins (with Epinephrine)
  • Maximum Dose – 8mg/kg (without Epinephrine), 7.5mg/kg (with Epinephrine)

Chloroprocaine:

  • Onset: Slow
  • Duration of Action: 30 mins (without Epinephrine), 90 mins (with Epinephrine)
  • Maximum Dose – 2.5mg/kg (without Epinephrine), 4mg/kg (with Epinephrine)

Etidocaine:

  • Onset: Rapid
  • Duration of Action: 240 mins (without Epinephrine), 480 mins (with Epinephrine)
  • Maximum Dose – 2.5mg/kg (without Epinephrine), 4mg/kg (with Epinephrine)

Prilocaine

  • Onset: Medium
  • Duration of Action: 90 mins (without Epinephrine), 360 mins (with Epinephrine)
  • Maximum Dose – 5mg/kg (without Epinephrine), 7.5mg/kg (with Epinephrine)

Tetracaine

  • Onset: Slow
  • Duration of Action: 180 mins (without Epinephrine), 600 mins (with Epinephrine)
  • Maximum Dose – 1.5mg/kg (without Epinephrine), 2.5mg/kg (with Epinephrine)
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