Glossary Of Periodontic Terms – G

GANGRENE: Death of a mass of tissue,’ generally associated with loss of vascular (nutritive) supply and followed by bacterial invasion and putrefaction.

GEMINATION: Teeth that are structurally united and have developed from the same tooth germ.

GENE: A segment of a DNA molecule coded for the synthesis of a single polypeptide; a unit of genetic information.

GENOME: The complete chromosomal set derived from one parent.

GENOTYPE: The genetic composition of an individual or defined population.

GEOGRAPHIC TONGUE (Migratory Glossitis): A condition characterized by chronic, superficial, and circumscribed desquamation of the filiform papillae. The areas of desquamation change continuously.

GERMICIDE: An agent that kills microorganisms.

GINGIVA: The fibrous investing tissue, covered by keratinized epithelium, that immediately surrounds a tooth and is contiguous with its periodontal ligament and with the mucosal tissues of the mouth.

AT TACHED G.: The portion of the gingiva that is firm, dense, stippled, and tightly bound to the underlying periosteum, tooth, and bone.

FREE G.: That part of the gingiva that surrounds the tooth and is not directly attached to the tooth surface.

MARGINAL G.: The most coronal portion of the gingiva. Often used to refer to the free gingiva that forms the wall of the gingival crevice in health.

PAPILLARY G.: See: Gingival Papilla.

GINGIVAL: Pertaining to the gingiva.

G. CLEFT: See: Cleft, Gingival.

G. COL: See: Col.

G. CORIUM: The connective tissue of the gingiva.

G. CRAT ER: A saucer-shaped defect of the interproximal gingiva.

G. CREST: See: Crest.

G. CREVICE (G. Sulcus): The shallow fissurebetween the marginal gingiva and the enamel or cementum.

G. CUFF: That portion of the gingiva that overlies the junctional epithelium.

G. CURETTAGE: See: Curettage, Gingival.

GINGIVAL DISEASES: The pattern of observable signs and symptoms of different disease entities that are localized to the gingiva.

G. D. OF FUNGAL ORIGIN: Gingival manifestations of fungal infections are characterized by white, red, or ulcerative lesions associated with several predisposing conditions.

G. D. OF SPECIFIC BACTERIAL ORIGIN: Conditions induced by exogenous bacterial infection other than common components of dental plaque.

G. D. OF VIRAL ORIGIN: Acute manifestations of viral infections of the oral mucosa, characterized by redness and multiple vesicles that easily rupture to form painful ulcers affecting the gingiva. They may be accompanied by fever, malaise, and regional lymphadenopathy.

G. ENLARGEMENT: An overgrowth or increase in size of the gingiva.

DRUG-INFLUENCED G. E.: Gingival enlargement resulting in whole or in part from systemic drug use.

G. EXUDAT E: An exudate that escapes into the oral cavity via the gingival crevice.

G. FEST OON: See: Festoons, Gingival.

G. FIBEROT OMY: A circumferential crevicular incision through all gingival and periodontal fibers coronal to the crest of the alveolar bone.

G. FIBROMAT OSIS: A diffuse, fibrous overgrowth of the gingiva; can be idiopathic, hereditary, or associated with drug administration.

HEREDITARY G. F.: A genetically derived fibrotic gingival enlargement.

G. FLUID: Tissue fluid that seeps through the crevicular and junctional epithelium. It is increased in the presence of inflammation.

G. GROOVE: A shallow, V-shaped groove or indentation that is closely associated with the apical extent of free gingiva and runs parallel to the margin of the gingiva. The frequency of its occurrence varies widely.

G. HYPERPLASIA : An enlargement of the gingiva due to an increase in the number of cells.

G. HYPERTROPHY: An enlargement of the gingiva due to an increase in the size of cells.

G. MARGIN: See: Gingiva, Marginal.

G. PAPILLA : That portion of the gingiva that occupies the interproximal spaces. The interdental extension of the gingiva.

G. POCKET: A pathologically deepened gingival crevice that does not involve loss of connective tissue attachment. Frequently observed when there is gingival enlargement.

G. RECESSION: See: Recession, Gingival.

G. SULCUS : See: Gingival Crevice.

GINGIVECTOMY: The excision of a portion of the gingiva; usually performed to reduce the soft tissue wall of a periodontal pocket.

GINGIVITIS: Inflammation of the gingiva.

AS CORBIC ACID DEFICIENCY G.: Inflammatory response of the gingiva to plaque aggravated by chronically low ascorbic acid levels.

DESQUAMATIVE G.: A non-specific term denoting chronic, diffuse inflammation of the gingiva with sloughing of the surface epithelium. Can be found in several mucosal diseases.

DIABETES -ASSOCIATED G.: Inflammatory response of the gingiva to plaque aggravated by poorly controlled plasma glucose levels.

DRUG-INFLUENCED G.: Pronounced inflammatory response of the gingiva to plaque and drug(s).

ERUPTIVE G.: Inflammation accompanying eruption of the teeth.

HORMONA L G.: A generic term describing the changes in color, size, shape, or function of gingiva resulting from the influence of hormones.

HYPERPLASTIC G.: Characterized by markedly enlarged and proliferative margins and interdental papillae.

LEUKEMIA-ASSOCIATED G.: Pronounced inflammatory response of the gingiva to plaque resulting in increased bleeding and enlargement subsequent to leukemia. Enlargement may be partially due to leukemic cell infiltration of the gingiva.

MARGINA L G.: Inflammation limited to the gingiva adjacent to the tooth surface.

MENS TRUA L-CYCLE ASSOCIATED G.: Pronounced inflammatory response of gingiva to plaque and hormones immediately prior to ovulation.

NECROTIZING ULCERATIVE G (NUG): An infection characterized by gingival necrosis presenting as “punched out” papillae, with gingival bleeding and pain. Fetid breath and pseudomembrane formation may be secondary diagnostic features. Fusiform bacteria, Prevotella intermedia, and spirochetes have been associated with the lesion. Predisposing factors may include stress, poor diet, smoking, and HIV infection. See also: Periodontitis, Necrotizing Ulcerative.

NON-PLAQUE-INDUCED G.: Gingival inflammation having an etiology other than dental plaque, such as gingival diseases of specific bacterial, viral, fungal, or genetic origin, due to systemic conditions, trauma, foreign body reactions, or other causes.

ORAL CONTRACEPTIVE-ASSOCIATED G.: Pronounced inflammatory response of the gingiva to plaque and oral contraceptives.

PLAQUE-INDUCED G.: Gingival inflammation resulting from dental plaque.

PREGNANCY-ASSOCIATED G.: Pronounced inflammatory response of the gingiva to dental plaque and hormones usually occurring during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.

PUBERTY-ASSOCIATED G.: Pronounced inflammatory response of gingiva to dental plaque and hormones during the circumpubert; period.

GINGIVOPLASTY: A surgical reshaping of the gingiva.

GINGIVOSIS: Archaic term for desquamative gingivitis.

GINGIVOSTOMATITIS: Inflammation affecting both the gingiva and the oral mucosa.

HERPETIC G.: An infection of the oral soft tissues caused by the herpes simplex virus and characterized by redness, formation of multiple vesicles, painful ulcers, fever, and lymphadenopathy.

GLOSSALGIA: Pain associated with the tongue.

GLOSSITIS, MIGRATORY: See: Geographic Tongue.

GLOSSODY NIA: Painful or burning tongue.

GLUCOCORTI COID: A group of C21 steroid hormones (cortisol, etc.) that affect carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism; secreted from the adrenal cortex; used in treatment of desquamative gingival lesions in the oral cavity; a corticosteroid.

GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST (GTT): A laboratory test that indicates the patient’s capacity to regulate blood sugar level following the ingestion of carbohydrate. One of the most reliable laboratory tests for detection of diabetes mellitus.

GLYCOSAMINOGLYCAN: A polysaccharide chain consisting of a hexosamine alternating with another carbohydrate residue; a component of proteoglycans.

GRAFT: I. Any tissue or organ used for implantation or transplantation. 2. A piece of living tissue placed in contact with injured tissue to repair a defect or supply a deficiency. 3. To induce union between normally separate tissues.

ALLOGRAFT: A graft between genetically dissimilar members of the same species.

ALLOPLAST: A synthetic graft or inert foreign body implanted into tissue. See: Implant, Oral.

AUTOGENOUS G.: See: Graft, Autograft.

AUTOGENOUS BONE G.: An osseous autograft.

AUTOGRAFT: Tissue transferred from one position to another within the same individual.

DOUBLE PAPILLA PEDICLE G.: See: Flap, Double Papilla Pedicle.

HETEROGRAFT: A graft taken from a donor of another species.

HOMOGRAFT: See: Allograft.

ILIAC G.: Bone graft material obtained from the iliac crest.

ISOGRAFT: A graft between genetically identical individuals, usually between identical twins.

PAPILLARY PEDICLE G.: See: Flap, Papillary Pedicle.

PEDICLE G.: See: Flap, Pedicle.

SOFT TISSUE (Gingival) G.: An autogenous graft of masticatory mucosa or collagenous tissue completely or partially detached from its original site and placed in a prepared recipient bed.

XENOGRAFT: A heterograft.

GRAM-NEGATI VE: Pertaining to bacteria that counterstain pale red with Gram stain. These bacteria have a lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) layer exterior to a thin peptidoglycan layer in their cell walls.

GRAM-POSITIVE: Pertaining to bacteria that stain deep purple with Gram stain. These bacteria have a thick peptidoglycan layer but no lipopolysaccharide in their cell walls.

GRAM STA IN: A method for classifying bacteria into two groups on the basis of their cell wall composition, which causes them to stain either purple (positive) or pale red (negative).

GRANULATI ON TI SSUE: Healing tissue that consists of fibroblasts, capillary buds, inflammatory cells, and edema.

GRANULOC YTOPENI A : See: Agranulocytosis.

GRANULOMA : A reactive nodule consisting of modified macrophages resembling epithelial cells surrounded by a rim of mononuclear cells, usually lymphocytes, and often containing giant cells.

APICAL G.: Circumscribed granulomatous tissue adjacent to the apex of a tooth.

CENTRAL GIANT CELL G.: Usually restricted to the jaw bones, this lytic lesion displays loose fibrillar connective tissue, numerous capillaries, and multinuclear giant cells; a histologic appearance similar to the bony lesions of hyperparathyroidism.

PERIPHERAL GIANT CELL G.: Considered an unusual proliferative response of the tissues to injury, this lesion always occurs on the gingiva or alveolar mucosa. Histologically, it is a non-encapsulated mass of delicate connective tissue cells, numerous capillaries, and multinucleated giant cells.

PYOGENIC G.: Localized, painless protuberant, exophytic gingival mass that is attached by a sessile or pedunculated base from the gingival margin or more commonly from an interproximal space.

PREGNANCY-ASSOCIATED P. G.: A pyogenic granuloma resulting from dental plaque and hormones during pregnancy.

GRANULOMATOUS TISSUE: A distinctive morphologic pattern of inflammation consisting of histiocytes that have been transformed into epitheloid cells that are surrounded by mononuclear cells, usually lymphocytes. Seen in the granulomatous diseases, such as tuberculosis, syphilis, sarcoidosis, and leprosy.

GRINDING, SELECTIVE: Alteration of the occlusal forms of teeth to improve occlusal function and to decrease or redirect occlusal forces to the teeth.

GROOVE, PAL ATAL : A developmental, anomalous groove usually found on the palatal aspect of maxillary central and lateral incisors.

GROU P FUNCTION: Multiple contacts between the maxillary and mandibular teeth in lateral movements on the working side, where by simultaneous contacts of several teeth act as a group to distribute occlusal forces.

GROWTH FACTORS: A diverse group of polypeptides that have important roles in regulation of growth and development of a variety of organs.

GUARD: See: Occlusal Guard.

GUIDANCE: The process of controlling or directing an object on a predetermined course or track.

CANINE G.: Contact guidance provided by canine teeth in lateral mandibular movements. See: Canine Protection.

CONDYLAR G.: The path the condyles travel during normal mandibular movement, measured in degrees relative to the Frankfort horizontal plane.

INCISAL G.: The influence on mandibular movements exerted by the palatal surfaces of the maxillary anterior teeth.

GUIDED BONE REGENERATION: See: Regeneration, Guided Tissue.

GUIDED TISSUE AUGMEN TATION: See: Regeneration, Guided Tissue.

GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION: See: Regeneration, Guided Tissue.

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