Glossary Of Periosontic Terms – E


See: Occlusion, Eccentric.

ECCHYMOSIS: An extravasation of blood into subcutaneous tissue or mucosa.

ECOLOGY: The study of the relationships of organisms with other organisms and their environment.

ECTODERMAL DYSPLASIA: See: Dysplasia, Ectodermal.

EC TOPIC: Occurring in an unusual position, manner, or form, as in ectopic eruption.

EDEMA: An abnormal swelling resulting from an accumulation of fluid in a tissue or part.

EDENTULOUS: Without teeth.

EIKENELLA CORRODENS: Gram-negative, nonmotile, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria found primarily in subgingival plaque. Also associated with sinusitis, meningitis, pneumonia, and endocarditis.

ELEC TROSURGERY: Division of tissues by high frequency electrical current applied locally with a metal instrument or needle.

ELISA: Acronym for enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay wherein an enzyme-antibody complex binds to an agent thought to be present in a sample. Typically, an enzyme-activated dye is used to detect the presence of bound immunoglobulin-enzyme complex. The amount of color is proportional to the concentration of bound antibody/suspect agent present in the test sample.

EMBOLUS: A blood clot, air, or other foreign material that travels in the bloodstream unti I it obstructs a blood vessel.

EMBRASURE: The space between the proximal surfaces of adjacent teeth where those surfaces diverge apically, buccally, lingually, or occlusally from an area of contact.

EMIGRATION: See: Diapedesis.

EMPHYSEMA: I. A pathological accumulation of air or gas in tissue spaces. In the oral and facial regions it may be caused by an air syringe, an air-driven dental handpiece, coughing, or blowing the nose.

2. Permanent dilation of respiratory alveoli.

ENAMEL: The hard, calcified tissue covering the coronal dentin.

ENAMEL PEARL: A small, focal mass of enamel formed apical to the cemento-enamel junction.

ENAMEL PROJEC TION: An apical extension of enamel, usually toward a furcation.

ENDEMIC: Present in a community at all times. Occurs continuously.

ENDOCARDITIS: Inflammation of the endocardial surface of the heart.

INFECTIVE E.: A microbial infection of the endocardial surface of the heart, usually involving the heart valves. Formerly classified as acute, subacute, and chronic bacterial endocarditis, but now delineated by the offending microorganism (i.e., streptococcal infective endocarditis).

ENDOCRINOPATHY: A disorder resulting from an abnormality of the endocrine glands or their secretions.

ENDOGENOUS: I. Growing from within. 2. Developing or originating within an organism or arising from causes within an organism.

ENDOTHELIUM: The layer of squamous cells lining blood vessels, lymphatics, the heart, and all serous and synovial cavities of the body.

ENDOTOXIN: A heat-stable, lipid polysaccharide complex found in the cell wall of many Gramnegative microorganisms. It can be cytotoxic,

pyogenic, and has been shown to induce and/or amplify inflammation and has been implicated in the etiologies of periodontitis.

ENOSTOSIS: A bony growth located within a bony cavity or extending centrally from the cortical plate.

See: Osteitis, Condensing.

ENUCLEATE: To remove an organ or lesion in its entirety.

ENZYME: A catalytic substance, protein in nature, formed by living cells and having a specific action in promoting a chemical change.


[‘PINEPHRINE: A neuro-hormone produced and secreted into the circulation by the adrenal medulla; a catecholamine which has adrenomimetic effects; used in local anesthetic solutions for its vasoconstrictive properties.

EPI TIHELIAL AT TACHMENT: See: Epithelium, Junctional.

EPI THELIALIZATION (Epithelization): Healing by growth of epithelium over connective tissue.

EPITHELIUM, ORAL: The tissue serving as the lining of the intraoral surfaces. It extends into the gingival crevice and adheres to the tooth at the base of

the crevice.

CREVICULAR E.: The non-keratinized epithelium of the gingival crevice.

JUNCTIONAL E.: A single or mUltiple layer of nonkeratinizing cells adhering to the tooth surface at the

base of the gingival crevice. Formerly called epithelial attachment.

SULCULAR E.: See: Epithelium, Crevicular.

EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS (EBV): Herpes; DNA virus that causes Burkitt’s lymphoma in which the human peripheral blood leukocytes are transformed into lymphoblast-like cells with an indefinite life span.

EPULIS: A non-specific term for any tumor of the gingiva.

EQUILIBRATION, OCCLUSAL: See: Occlusal Adjustment.

EROSION: An apparent chemical dissolution of enamel and dentin, unrelated to caries, causing a cavity that has a hard, smooth base.

ERUPTION, DENTAL: The emergence of a tooth into the oral cavity.

ACTIVE E.: The process by which a tooth moves from its germinative position to its functional position.

PASSIVE E.: Tooth exposure secondary to apical migration of the gingiva.

ERYTHEMA: Redness of the skin or mucous membranes produced by congestion of the capillaries.

LINEAR GINGIVAL ERYTHEMA: A gingival manifestation of immunosuppression characterized by a distinct linear erythematous band limited to the

free gingiva. The lesion does not predictably respond to plaque removal.

ERYTHEMA MULTIFORME: An acute dermatitis of unknown cause that may be preclpitateLi by drug intake, herpes simplex infection, or other diseases.

Characteristic erythematous “target” or “bull ‘s eye” lesions occur on the skin; intraorally, diffuse hyperemic macules, papules, and vesicles may be seen.

STEVENS-JOHNSON SY NDROME: A severe form of erythema multi forme characterized by painful oral bullae that rupture; bloody, crusting lips; conjunctivitis; photophobia; and urethritis, balanitis, and/or vaginal ulcers.

ERYTHROMYCIN: A bacteriostatic macrolide group of antibiotics that has both Gram-positive and Gram-negative antibacterial spectra and acts by inhibiting ribosomal protein synthesis.

ERYTHROPLASIA (Erythroplakia): A red. papular, or macular lesion (often ulcerated) of mucous membrane. Can be pre-malignant.

ESCHAR: A slough caused by cauterization or by application of some corrosive substance.

ESTROGEN: A generic term for naturally-occurring steroid hormones containing an estrane nucleus (estrone, estadiol, estriol, etc.); secreted from the testis, ovary, and placenta; stimulates protein anabolic actions and exerts a positive effect on nitrogen balance; regulates the growth and maintenance of female accessory sex organs and secondary sex characteristics; implicated in hormonal, pubertal, and menopausal desquamative gingivitis.

ETIOLOGY: The study of the causes of disease; alternately, the cause of a disease.

EUBACTERIUM BRACHII: Gram-positive, nonmotile, anaerobic, pleomorphic bacilli or coccobacilli that occur in pairs of short chains. Found in the oral cavity, they are usually part of the indigenous oral flora.

EUBACTERIUM SSP.: Gram-positive, non-motile anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria frequently found in subgingival plaque.

EUBACTERIUM TIMIDUM: Gram-positive, nonmotile, anaerobic bacilli that are isolated from wounds and other infections and are associated with other anaerobes and facultative bacteria. May be involved in bacteremia and endocarditis.

EVULSION: The sudden tearing out, or away, of tissue due to a traumatic episode. See: Avulsion.

EXACERBATION: Increase in the severity of a disease or of any of its signs or symptoms.

EXCISION: A cutting out; removal; the process of amputating or cutting away any portion of the body.

EXFOLIATION: I. The shedding of something, such as epithelial cell from the surface of the body. 2. In dentistry, the physiological loss of the primary dentition; the loss of implanted materials.

EXOGENOUS: Due to external cause; not arising within the organism.

EXOPHYTIC: Growing outward; proliferation on the exterior or surface of an organ.

EXOSTOSIS: A benign, bony growth projecting outward from the surface of a bone. See: Torus.

EXOTOXIN: A toxic substance formed by species of certain bacteria and found outside the bacterial cell.

EXTIRPATION: The complete removal of an organ or tissue.

EXTRAVA SATE: To seep or escape from a cavity, vessel, or enclosed area into the surrounding tissues (i.e., blood or ly mph).

EXTRINSIC: Derived from or situated without; external.

EXTRUSION: In dentistry, the overeruption or migration of a tooth from its normal occlusal position, as when the contacting tooth in the opposing arch is missing.

EXUDATE: Material such as fluid, cells, and cellular debris that has escaped from blood vessels and is deposited in tissues or on tissue surfaces, usually as a result of inflammation.

F IBRINOUS E.: Characterized by an abundance of fibrinogen resulting in subsequent fibrin formation at

the site of injury.

HEMORRHAGIC E.: Characterized by an abundance of red blood cells.

PURULENT E.: Characterized by an abundance of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, resulting in pus formation at the site of injury.

SEROUS E.: Characterized by an abundance of serous fluid of high protein content at the site of injury.

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