GPT terms – C

Ca: acronym for CArcinoma or CAncer

CAD-CAM: acronym for Computer Aided Design-Computer Aided Manufacturer (or Computer Assisted Machining)

calcium hydroxide : an odorless white powder that is very slightly soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol.

Aqueous and non-aqueous suspensions of calcium hydroxide are often employed as cavity liners to protect the dental pulp from the

irritant action of restorative materials; also used in pulp capping, pulpotomy and apexification procedures

calcium sulfate : a product obtained by calcination of gypsum under steam pressure. The alpha form is composed

of regularly shaped grains, with low porosity, and requiring little water for a satisfactory mix. Forms include alpha, alpha-modified and


calcium sulfate plaster : compounds occurring in anhydrous form as anhydrite and in the natural form as

gypsum or gypsum dehydrate. The term “plaster” also applies to a mixture consisting of water and calcium sulfate hemihydrate

(CaSo4. ½ H2O)

cal·cu·lus n: in dentistry, a chalky or dark deposit attached to tooth structure, essentially made of mineralized microbial plaque. Found

on tooth structure in a supragingival and/or a subgingival location

cameo surface obs: the viewable portion of a removable denture prosthesis; the portion of the surface of a denture

that extends in an occlusal direction from the border of the denture and includes the facial, lingual, and palatal surface. It is the part of

the denture base that is usually polished, and includes the buccal and lingual surfaces of the teeth (GPT-7)-see POLISHED


Camper’s line: see ALA-TRAGUS LINE

Camper’s plane l: a plane established by the inferior border of the ala of the nose (or the average between the two)

and the superior border of the tragus of each ear 2: a plane passing from the acanthion to the center of each bony external auditory

meatus; called also acanthion-external auditory meatus plane-see also ALA-TRAGUS LINE

cam·phoro·quin·one n: a visible-light-sensitive chemical responsible for initiating free-radical polymerization

can·cel·lous bone : the reticular, spongy or lattice-like portion of the bone; the spongy bone tissue

located in the medulla of the bone; this bone is composed of a variable trabecular network containing interstitial tissue that may be


can·dle : a unit of luminous intensity, equal to 1/60 of the luminous intensity of a square centimeter of a black body

heated to the temperature of the solidification of platinum (1773° C)

candle power : luminous intensity expressed in candles

canine eminence: the labial prominence on the maxillary alveolar process corresponding to the position of the

root of the canine tooth


canine protected articulation : a form of mutually protected articulation in which the vertical

and horizontal overlap of the canine teeth disengage the posterior teeth in the excursive movements of the mandible-comp



can·ti·lever: a projecting beam or member supported on one end

cantilever bridge: slang, see CANTILEVER FIXED DENTAL PROSTHESIS

cantilever fixed dental prosthesis: a fixed dental prosthesis in which the pontic is cantilevered,

i.e., is retained and supported only on one end by one or more abutments

cap splint \k?p spli?nt\: a plastic or metallic device used in the treatment of maxillary or mandibular fractures and designed to cover

the clinical crowns of the teeth and usually luted to them

capillary attraction : that quality or state which, because of surface tension, causes elevation or depression of

the surface of a liquid that is in contact with the solid walls of a vessel

cap·su·lar : pertaining to a capsule

capsular contracture: see CAPSULAR FIBROSIS

capsular fibrosis : fibrotic contracture of the capsular ligament of the temporomandibular joint

capsular ligament : as it relates to the temporomandibular joint, a fibrous structure that separately

encapsulates the superior and inferior synovial cavities of the temporomandibular articulation

cap·sule : a fibrous sac or ligament that encloses a joint and limits its motion. It is lined with synovial


capsulitis : the inflammation of a capsule, as that of the joint, lens, liver, or labyrinth

car·at : a standard of gold fineness. The percentage of gold in an alloy, stated in parts per 24. Pure gold is designated 24


carbide bur: a rotary cutting instrument made from tungsten carbide

carbon fiber: filaments made by high temperature carbonizing of acrylic fiber. Used in the production of high strength composites

Cartesian coordinates: [René Descartes, French philosopher and mathematician, 1596-1650]: eponym, one of two coordinates

relative to intersecting axes that locate a point on a plane or one of three coordinates that locate a point in space

car·ies n singular: a dental disease causing the destruction of enamel, dentin and/or cementum. The etiology is generally ascribed to

acid-producing bacteria

car·ti·lage : a derivative of connective tissue arising from the mesenchyme. Typical hyaline cartilage is a flexible,

rather elastic material with a semitransparent glasslike appearance. Its ground substance is a complex protein through which there is

distributed a large network of connective tissue fibers

case n, substand, chiefly dialect (13c): 1: the dental patient 2: a particular instance of a disease, as a case of diphtheria;

sometimes used incorrectly to designate the patient with the disease process

case series substand: a collection of common diagnostic findings or/treatment modalities within a group of patients, best termed a

patient series

case study substand: presentation of the diagnostic findings and treatment for a patient, usually termed a patient study

case history substand: the collected data about an individual, family, environmental factors (including medical/dental history) and

any other information that may be useful in analyzing and diagnosing conditions or for instructional purposes; best termed the patient


1cast : to produce a shape by thrusting a molten liquid or plastic material into a mold possessing the desired shape

2cast : a life-size likeness of some desired form. It is formed within or is a material poured into a matrix or impression


cast clasp: a removable dental prosthesis clasp fabricated by the lost-wax casting process

cast connector: a cast metal union between the retainer(s) and pontic(s) in a fixed dental prosthesis

cast metal core: the foundation restoration made for a fixed dental prosthesis formed indirectly by lost-wax casting

cast post-and-core: a one-piece foundation restoration for an endodontically treated tooth that comprises a post within the root canal

and a core replacing missing coronal structure to form the tooth preparation

cast relator : a mechanical device that orients opposing casts to each other without reference to anatomic

landmarks-see ARTICULATOR

castable : any refractory material that has a bonding agent added and can be mixed with water or other liquid

agents and poured in a mold to set

castable ceramic : for dental applications, a glass-ceramic material that combines the properties of a restorative

material for function with the capability to be cast using the lost wax process

1cast·ing: something that has been cast in a mold; an object formed by the solidification of a fluid that has been

poured or injected into a mold

2cast·ing: the act of forming an object in a mold-see VACUUM C.

casting flask : see CASTING RING

casting ring : a metal tube in which a refractory mold is made for casting dental restorations

casting wax : a composition containing various waxes with desired properties for making wax patterns to be formed

into metal castings

cat·a·lyst : a substance that accelerates a chemical reaction without affecting the properties of the materials


cathode: the negative pole in electrolysis

CAT: acronym for Computerized Axial Tomography

cau·tery : the application of a caustic substance, hot instrument, electric current, or other agent used to

burn, scar, or destroy tissue

cavity varnish : a combination of copal resin or other synthetic resins dissolved in an organic solvent such as chloroform or


CD: acronym for Complete Denture

CDA: acronym for Certified Dental Assistant

CDL: acronym for Certified Dental Laboratory

CDT: acronym for Certified Dental Technician

cel·lu·li·tis : diffuse and especially subcutaneous inflammation of connective tissue

1ce·ment 1: a binding element or agent used as a substance to make objects adhere to each other, or something

serving to firmly unite 2: a material that, on hardening, will fill a space or bind adjacent objects- syn luting agent

2ce·ment : to unite or make firm by or as if by cement; to lute

ce·men·ta·tion : 1: the process of attaching parts by means of cement 2: attaching a restoration to natural teeth by

means of a cement (GPT-4)

cemented pin: a metal rod luted into a hole drilled in dentin to enhance retention

cemento-dentinal junction: the area of union of the dentin and cementum

cemento-enamel junction : that area where the enamel and cementum meet at the cervical region of a tooth.

ce·me·ntoid : the uncalcified surface layer of cementum including incorporated connective tissue fibers

ce·men·tum: the thin calcified tissue of ectomesenchymal origin that covers the root of a tooth

cementum fracture : the tearing of fragments of the cementum from the tooth root

center of the ridge : the faciolingual or buccolingual mid-line of the residual ridge

center of rotation: see ROTATION CENTER

central bearing: the application of forces between the maxilla and mandible (by means of a central bearing tracing device) at a single point that is located as near as possible to the center of the supporting areas of the maxillary and mandibular jaws. It is used for the purpose of distributing closing forces evenly throughout the areas of the supporting structures during the registration and recording of maxillomandibular relations and during the correction of occlusal errors (GPT-4)

central bearing point : the contact point of a central bearing device (GPT-4)

central bearing tracing: the pattern obtained on the horizontal plate used with a central bearing tracing device

central bearing tracing device : a device that provides a central point of bearing or support between the maxillary and mandibular dental arches. It consists of a contacting point that is attached to one dental arch and a plate attached to the opposing dental arch. The plate provides the surface on which the bearing point rests or moves and on which the tracing of the mandibular movement is recorded. It may be used to distribute occlusal forces evenly during the recording of maxillomandibular relationships and/or for the correction of disharmonious occlusal contacts. First attributed to Alfred Gysi, Swiss prosthodontist

cen·tric 1: located in or at a center; central 2: concentrated about or directed toward a center

centric check bite: see CENTRIC RELATION RECORD

centric interocclusal record: see CENTRIC RELATION RECORD

centric jaw record: see CENTRIC RELATION RECORD

centric jaw relation: see CENTRIC RELATION

centric occlusion: the occlusion of opposing teeth when the mandible is in centric relation. This may or may not coincide with the maximal intercuspal position-comp MAXIMAL INTERCUSPAL POSITION

centric position : the position of the mandible when the jaws are in centric relation (GPT-1)


centric record: see CENTRIC RELATION RECORD

centric relation 1: the maxillomandibular relationship in which the condyles articulate with the thinnest avascular portion of their respective disks with the complex in the anterior-superior position against the shapes of the articular eminencies. This position is independent of tooth contact. This position is clinically discernible when the mandible is directed superior and anteriorly. It is restricted to a purely rotary movement about the transverse horizontal axis (GPT-5)

2: the most retruded physiologic relation of the mandible to the maxillae to and from which the individual can make lateral movements. It is a condition that can exist at various degrees of jaw separation. It occurs around the terminal hinge axis (GPT-3)

3: the most retruded relation of the mandible to the maxillae when the condyles are in the most posterior unstrained position in the glenoid fossae from which lateral movement can be made at any given degree of jaw separation (GPT-1)

4: The most posterior relation of the lower to the upper jaw from which lateral movements can be made at a given vertical dimension (Boucher) 5: a maxilla to mandible relationship in which the condyles and disks are thought to be in the midmost, uppermost position. The position has been difficult to define anatomically but is determined clinically by assessing when the jaw can hinge on a fixed terminal axis (up to 25 mm). It is a clinically determined relationship of the mandible to the maxilla when the condyle disk assemblies are positioned in their most superior position in the mandibular fossae and against the distal slope of the articular eminence (Ash) 6: the relation of the mandible to the maxillae when the condyles are in the uppermost and rearmost position in the glenoid fossae. This position may not be able to be recorded in the presence of dysfunction of the masticatory system

7: a clinically determined position of the mandible placing both condyles into their anterior uppermost position. This can be determined in patients without pain or derangement in the TMJ (Ramsfjord)

centric relation interocclusal record: see CENTRIC RELATION RECORD

centric relation occlusion: see CENTRIC OCCLUSION

centric relation position: see CENTRIC RELATION

centric relation record: a registration of the relationship of the maxilla to the mandible when themandible is in centric relation. The registration may be obtained either intraorally or extraorally

centric slide: the movement of the mandible while in centric relation, from the initial occlusal contact into maximum intercuspation (GPT-4)

centric stop : opposing cuspal/fossae contacts that maintain the occlusal vertical dimension between the opposing arches

ceph·a·lo·gram n: see CEPHALOMETRIC RADIOGRAPH

ceph·a·lo·m·e·ter : an instrument for measuring the head or skull; an orienting device for positioning the head for radiographic examination and measurement

cephalometric radiograph : a standardized radiograph of the skull

cephalometric tracing : a line drawing of structural outlines of craniofacial landmarks and facial bones, made directly from a cephalometric radiograph

cephalometry , cephalometric 1: the science of measurement of the dimensions of the head

2: in dentistry, certain combinations of angular and linear measurements developed from tracing frontal and lateral radiographic head films used to assess craniofacial growth and development on a longitudinal basis and to determine the nature of orthodontic treatment response

ceph·a·lo·stat : an instrument used to position the head to produce spatially oriented, reproducible, radiographs or


ce·ram : a heat treatment process that converts a specially formulated glass into a fine grained glass-ceramic material

1ce·ram·ic : of or relating to the manufacture of any product made essentially from a nonmetallic mineral (as

clay) by firing at a high temperature

2ce·ram·ic \sa-r?m?ik\ n (1859): the product of ceramic manufacture

ceramic crown: a ceramic fixed dental prosthesis that restores a clinical crown without a supporting metal framework

ceramic inlay: a ceramic intracoronal restoration

ceramic flux : a glass modifier; metallic ions such as calcium, potassium or sodium, usually as carbonates, which interrupt the oxygen/silica bond, thus enhancing fluidity

ce·ram·ics n 1: compounds of one or more metals with a nonmetallic element, usually oxygen. They are formed of chemical and biochemical stable substances that are strong, hard, brittle, and inert nonconductors of thermal and electrical energy

2: the art of making porcelain dental restorations

ce·ram·ist : one who engages in ceramics ceramometal restoration: see METAL CERAMIC RESTORATION

cermet: fused glass powder with silver particles formed through high temperature sintering of a mixture of the two minerals

Certified Dental Laboratory: in the United States, a dental laboratory that has met established specific standards for personnel skills, laboratory facilities and infection control and is certified by The National Board for Certification of Dental Laboratories Certified Dental Technician: in the United States, a dental technician who has met established specific standards and is certified by The National Board for Certification of Dental Laboratories

cervical 1: in anatomy, pertaining to the cervix or neck 2: in dentistry, pertaining to the region at or near the cementoenamel junction

cer·vix 1: the neck 2: a constricted portion of a part or organ

1cham·fer : a finish line design for tooth preparation in which the gingival aspect meets the external axial surface at an obtuse angle

2: a small groove or furrow

3: the surface found by cutting away the angle of intersection of two faces of a piece ofmaterial (i.e., stone, metal, wood): a beveled edge

2cham·fer 1: to cut a furrow in

2: to make a chamfer on; to cut or reduce to a chamfer; bevel

3: generally thought of as producing a curve from the axial wall to the cavosurface

chamfer angle: the angle between a chamfered surface and one of the original surfaces from which the chamfer is cut characterization: to alter by application of unique markings, indentations, coloration and similar custom means of delineation on a tooth or dental prosthesis thus enhancing natural appearance

char·ac·ter·ize : to distinguish, individualize, mark, qualify, singularize, or differentiate something

characterized denture base : a denture base with coloring that simulates the color and shading of natural oral tissues

check bite slang: see INTEROCCLUSAL RECORD

che·ili·tis : inflammation of the lip

cheiloplasty: plastic surgery of the lip

cheilorrhaphy: surgical correction of the cleft lip deformity

che·ilo·sis : a fissured condition of the lips and angles of the mouth; often associated with riboflavin deficiency

chew-in record: see STEREOGRAPHIC RECORD

chewing cycle: see MASTICATORY CYCLE

chewing force: see MASTICATORY FORCE

Christensen’s phenomenon: eponym for the space that occurs between opposing occlusal surfaces during mandibular protrusion.

chroma 1. the purity of a color, or its departure from white or gray

2. the intensity of a distinctive hue; saturation of a hue

3. chrome describes the strength or saturation of the hue (color)-see also SATURATION

chromatic stimulus : a stimulus that under prevailing conditions of adaptation gives rise to a perceived chromatic color

chromaticity coordinates : the two dimensions of any color order system that exclude the lightness dimension and describe the chromaticity. Unless otherwise specified, the term refers to the CIE coordinates x, y, and z for Illuminant

chromaticity diagram : a plane diagram in which each point represents a different combination of dominant wavelength and purity and which is usually constructed in some form of a triangle with colorimetric primaries represented at the corners. The CIE standard chromaticity diagram is essentially a right angle triangle representing hypothetical primaries and the complete chromaticity gamut of the CIE standard observer.

chro·mat·ic·ness : the intensity of hue as expressed in the Natural Color System

chro·ma·top·sia : an abnormal state of vision in which colorless objects appear colored; a visual defect in which colored objects appear unnaturally colored and colorless objects appear color tinged

chron·ic : marked by long duration or frequent recurrence; not acute; always present

chronic closed lock : with respect to the temporomandibular joint, a restriction in motion of the joint caused by an anteriorly displaced intraarticular disk and usually characterized by pain, especially during function

chronic pain: pain marked by long duration or frequent recurrence

CIE: acronym for Commission Internationale d’Eclairage

CIE LAB system: CIE LAB relates the tristimulus values to a color space. This scale accounts for the illuminant and the observer. By establishing a uniform color scale, color measurements can be compared and movements in color space defined

CIE standard illuminant: the illuminants A, B, C, D65 and other illuminants, defined by the CIE in terms of relative spectral power distributions; A=Planckion radiation (a theoretical body that absorbs all incident optical radiant energy) a temperature of about 2856° K; B=Direct solar radiation 48,000° K; C=Average daylight; D65=Daylight including the ultraviolet region: 6500° K

cin·e·flu·o·ros·co·py : dynamic fluoroscopic images recorded on motion picture film

cin·e·ra·di·og·ra·phy: the making of a motion picture record of successive images appearing on a fluoroscopic screen

cin·gu·lum 1: an anatomical band or encircling ridge

cin·gu·late 2: the lingual lobe of many anterior teeth; a convex protuberance at the lingual cervical one third of the anatomic crown

cingulum rest : a portion of a removable dental prosthesis that contacts the prepared or natural cingulum of the tooth, termed the cingulum rest seat

circumferential clasp : a retainer that encircles a tooth by more than 180 degrees, including opposite angles, and which generally contacts the tooth throughout the extent of the clasp, with at least one terminal located in an undercut area

circumferential clasp arm: see CIRCUMFERENTIAL CLASP

clamping force: the compressive force which a fastener exerts on a bolted joint. The stability of a bolted joint depends upon the maintenance of the clamping force

clasp : the component of the clasp assembly that engages a portion of the tooth surface and either enters an undercut for retention or remains entirely above the height of contour to act as a reciprocating element. Generally it is used to stabilize and retain a removable dental prosthesis-see BAR C, CIRCUMFERENTIAL C., COMBINATION C., CONTINUOUS C.

clasp arm: see CLASP

clasp assembly : the part of a removable dental prosthesis that acts as a direct retainer and/or stabilizer for a prosthesis by partially encompassing or contacting an abutment tooth-usage: components of the clasp assembly include the clasp, the reciprocal clasp, the cingulum, incisal or occlusal rest, and the minor connector clasp bridge slang: see UNILATERAL REMOVABLE DENTAL PROSTHESIS

clasp guideline: see SURVEY LINE

classification system: see PROSTHODONTIC DIAGNOSTIC INDEX

clear·ance : a condition in which bodies may pass each other without hindrance. Also, the distance between bodies (GPT-4)

1cleft : a space or opening made through splitting 2: a hollow between ridges or protuberances

2cleft: partially split or divided

cleft palate 1: a congenital fissure or elongated opening in the soft and/or hard palate 2: an opening in the hard and/or soft palate due to improper union of the maxillary process and the median nasal process during the second month of intrauterine development-syn PALATAL CLEFT-see COMPLETE C.P., OCCULT C.P.

cleft palate prosthesis: see SPEECH AID PROSTHESIS

cleft palate speech aid prosthesis: see SPEECH AID PROSTHESIS

clench·ing : the pressing and clamping of the jaws and teeth together frequently associated with acute nervous tension or physical effort

click: a brief sharp sound; with reference to the temporomandibular joint, any bright or sharp sound emanating from the joint-see CLICKING, EARLY CLOSING C., EARLY OPENING C., LATE CLOSING C., LATE OPENING C., MID OPENING C. RECIPROCAL C.

click·ing: a series of clicks, such as the snapping, cracking, or noise evident on excursions of the mandible; a distinct snapping sound or sensation, usually audible (or by stethoscope) or on palpation, which emanates from the temporomandibular joint(s) during jaw movement. It may or may not be associated with internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint

clin·i·cal 1: of or related to or conducted in or as if within a clinic 2: analytical or detached-clin·i·cal·ly

clinical crown: the portion of a tooth that extends from the occlusal table or incisal edge to the free gingival margin

clinical remount: see REMOUNT PROCEDURE

clin·om·e·ter n (1811): a device for measuring angles of elevation, inclination or declination-cli·no·met·ric adj-cli·nom·etry n

clip 1: any of numerous devices used to grip, clasp, or hook 2: a device used to retain a removable dental prosthesis intraorally to a fixed abutment; i.e., a bar, crown, or other retainer closed bite slang: see DECREASED OCCLUSAL VERTICAL DIMENSION

closed lock : an internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint in which the disk is dislocated anteriorly and usually medial to the condyle; displacement or dislocation of the disk without spontaneous reduction on mouth opening-see ACUTE CLOSED LOCK, CHRONIC CLOSED LOCK, DISK DISPLACEMENT WITHOUT REDUCTION

closed reduction of a fracture : reduction (repositioning) and fixation of fractured bones without making a surgical opening to the fracture site

closest speaking space: the space between the anterior teeth that, according to Dr. Earl Pound, should not be more or less than 1 to 2 mm of clearance between the incisal edges of the teeth when the patient is unconsciously repeating the letter “S.” Dr. Meyer M. Silverman termed this speaking centric, which was defined as the closest relationship of the occlusal surfaces and incisal edges of the mandibular teeth to the maxillary teeth during function and rapid speech. This was later called closest speaking level by Dr. Silverman and finally the closest speaking space

clutch n: a device placed in both the maxillary and mandibular arches for the purpose of supporting components used to record mandibular movement

co·ada·pt·ed 1: mutually adapted, especially by natural selection 2: in medicine, the proper realignment of displaced parts-co·ad·ap·ta·tion n

Coble balancer 1: an intraoral balancing device used to determine centric relation and the centric relation record 2: used to equilibrate complete removable dental prostheses intraorally-seeCENTRAL BEARING TRACING DEVICE Correct centric position must be established for good denture fit and function.

co·he·sion 1: the act or state of sticking together tightly 2: the force whereby molecules of matter adhere to one another; the attraction of aggregation 3: molecular attraction by which the particles of a body are united throughout their mass

cohesive failure : bond failure within a dental material due to a tensile or shearing force- see ADHESIVE FAILURE

cold curing resin: see AUTOPOLYMERIZING RESIN

collarless metal ceramic restoration : a metal ceramic restoration whose cervical metal portion has been eliminated. Porcelain is placed directly in contact with the prepared finish line

collateral ligaments: two or more ligaments paired to a single joint for the specific purpose of restricting extension and flexion within one plane only

colloid: a material in which is suspended a constituent in a finely divided state that is invisible to the eye but capable of scattering light

colloidal silica: submicroscopic fumed silica frequently used as a suspension in liquid; contained in the liquid mixed with many phosphate-bonded casting investments to improve casting smoothness and control expansion

col·or : a phenomenon of light or visual perception that enables one to differentiate otherwise identical objects the quality of an object or substance with respect to light reflected or transmitted by it. Color is usually determined visually by measurement of hue, saturation, and luminous reflectance of the reflected light 3: a visual response to light consisting of the three dimensions of hue, value, and saturation-see PERCEIVED C., PSYCHOPHYSICAL C.

color blindness : abnormal color vision or the inability to discriminate certain colors, most commonly along the red-green axis

color constancy : relative independence of perceived color to changes in color of the light source

color deficiency: a general term for all forms of color vision that yield chromaticity discrimination below normal limits, such as monochromatism, dichromatism, and anomalous trichromatism

color difference: magnitude and character of the difference between two colors under specified conditions; referred to as delta E

color difference equations : equations that transform CIE (Commission Internationals d’Eclairage) coordinates into a more uniform matrix such that a specified distance between two colors is more nearly proportional to the magnitude of an observed difference between them regardless of their hue

color notation : the use of symbols in some orderly fashion by which the attributes of color may be defined or may be set down in written formula

color rendering index: a number from 1 to 100 given to a light source to indicate its relative equivalence to pure white light which has a color rendering index (CRI) of 100. The closer the number is to 100, the more it resembles pure white light

color scale : an orderly arrangement of colors showing graduated change in some attribute or attributes of color as a value scale

color solid: a symbolic figure in three dimensions that represents the relations of all possible colors with respect to their primary attributes of hue, lightness, and saturation. Usually, value (lightness) appears as the vertical axis of the figure with hue and saturation represented in polar coordinates about the lightness axis, saturation being radial. The boundaries of the solid are actually irregular, but it is sometimes represented as a cylinder, a sphere, or a cube

color standard : a color whose psychophysical dimensions have been accurately measured and specified

color stimulus : visible radiation entering the eye and producing a sensation of color, either chromatic or achromatic

color temperature: the temperature in degrees Kelvin (Celsius plus 273°) of a totally absorbing or black body (object) that produces colors as the temperature changes. The range is from a dull red to yellow to white to blue. This term is sometimes used incorrectly to describe the color of “white” light sources. The correct term to describe the color of light sources is correlated color temperature

col·or·im·e·ter : a device that analyzes color by measuring it in terms of a standard color, scale of colors, or certain primary colors; an instrument used to measure light reflected or transmitted by a specimen

col·or·ing 1: the act of applying colors 2: something that produces color or color effects 3: the effect produced by applying or combining colors-see EXTRINSIC C., INTRINSIC C.

combination clasp : a circumferential retainer for a removable dental prosthesis that has a cast reciprocal arm and a wrought wire retentive clasp

combination syndrome: the characteristic features that occur when an edentulous maxilla is opposed by natural mandibular anterior teeth, including loss of bone from the anterior portion of the maxillary ridge, overgrowth of the tuberosities, papillary hyperplasia of the hard palate’s mucosa, extrusion of the lower anterior teeth, and loss of alveolar bone and ridge height beneath the mandibular removable dental prosthesis bases-also called anterior hyperfunction syndrome

comminuted fracture: a fracture in which the bone is broken in several places in the same region; afracture in which the bone is crushed and splintered

com·mi·nu·te: the reduction of food into small parts (GPT-4)-com·mi·nu·tion

com·mis·sure: a point of union or junction especially between two anatomic parts i.e., corner of the mouth-com·mis·sur·al

commissure splint : 1. a ancillary prosthesis placed between the lips that assist in achieving increased opening between the lips 2. a device placed between the lips which assists in achieving increased opening between the lips. Use of such devices enhances opening where surgical, chemical or electrical alterations of the lips has resulted in severe restriction or contractures -called also lip splint

compact bone: any osseous substance that is dense or hard compaction composite resin

compensating curve 1: the anteroposterior curving (in the median plane) and the mediolateral curving (in the frontal plane) within the alignment of the occluding surfaces and incisal edges of artificial teeth that is used to develop balanced occlusion

2: the arc introduced in the construction of complete removable dental prostheses to compensate for the opening influences produced by the condylar and incisal guidance’s during lateral and protrusive mandibular excursive movements-called also compensating curvature, compensating curve

complementary colors : 1. two colors that, when mixed together in proper proportions, result in a neutral color. Colored lights that are complementary when mixed in an additive manner form white light and follow the laws of additive color mixture. Colorants that are complementary when mixed together form black or gray and follow the laws of subtractive colorant mixture

2. colors located in directly opposite positions on the color wheel. Colorants that are complementary when mixed together form black or gray and follow the laws of subtractive color

complete arch subperiosteal implant: a device placed under the periosteum on the residual ridge to provide abutments for supporting a removable or fixed dental prosthesis in a fully edentulous arch-usage of such implants should be described by means of their relationship to their bases of support, the alveolar bone. As such, at placement, the implant is described as an eposteal dental implant-see EPOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT

complete cleft palate: an opening extending through the anterior alveolar ridge, and primary and secondary

palates-see PALATAL CLEFT

complete crown a restoration that covers all the coronal tooth surfaces (mesial, distal, facial, lingual, and


complete denture : a removable dental prosthesis that replaces the entire dentition and associated structures of the maxillae or mandible; called a complete removable dental prosthesis

complete denture prosthetics 1: the replacement of the natural teeth in the arch and their associated parts by artificial substitutes 2: the art and science of the restoration of an edentulous mouth (GPT-4)-see COMPLETE DENTURE PROSTHODONTICS

complete denture prosthodontics : that body of knowledge and skills pertaining to the restoration of the edentulous arch with a removable dental prosthesis

complete facial moulage: an impression procedure used to record the soft tissue contours of the whole

face complicated fracture \ko?m?pli?-k??ti?d fr?k?chur\: a fracture with significant injury to adjacent soft tissues (i.e., neurovascular injury) components of mastication: those factors of food manipulation and comminution that follow ingestion and precede deglutition

com·po·mer: a poly-acid modified composite resin, composed of glass filler, acid-modified dimethacrylate resin, and a photo initiator

components of occlusion: the various elements that are involved in occlusion, such as the temporomandibular joints, the associated musculature, the teeth, their contacting surfaces and investing tissues, and/or the dental supporting structures-see also DETERMINANTS OF MANDIBULAR MOVEMENT

composite resin: a highly cross-linked polymeric material reinforced by a dispersion of amorphous silica, glass, crystalline, or organic resin filler particles and/or short fibers bonded to the matrix by a coupling agent


compound joint : a joint involving three or more bones

compression molding : the act of pressing or squeezing together to form a shape within a mold; the adaptation, under pressure, of a plastic material into a mold compression of tissue: see TISSUE DISPLACEMENT

compressive stress : the internal induced force that opposes the shortening of a material in a direction parallel to the direction of the stresses; any induced force per unit area that resists deformation caused by a load that tends to compress or shorten a body

computerized tomography : (CT) the technique by which multidirectional x-ray transmission data through a body is mathematically reconstructed by a computer to form an electrical cross-sectional representation of a patient’s anatomy. CT is used as an acronym to designate any technical field associated with these techniques

con·cres·cen·ce : the union of roots of approximating teeth via deposition of cementum

con·cre·tion: any inorganic mass in a natural cavity or organ

compaction composite resin: a highly filled composite resin in which the filler particles have been altered so that the material is compacted in a layered, compression technique

con·den·sa·tion : 1: the compaction of dental amalgam using force to remove excess mercury and ensure continuity of the matrix phase

2: the process of increasing the density of dental porcelains during processing by removing excess water with vibration and blotting

condensation reaction : any chemical reaction between two molecules to form a larger molecule, with the elimination of a smaller molecule

conditional color match : a pair of colors that appear to match only under limited conditions, such as a particular light source and a particular observer; a metameric match

condylar agenesis : a developmental abnormality characterized by the absence of the condyle

condylar articulator : an articulator whose condylar path components are part of the lower member and whose condylar replica components are part of the upper member-called also nonarcon articulator

condylar axis: a hypothetical line through the mandibular condyles around which the mandible may rotate

condylar dislocation : a non self-reducing displacement of the mandibular condyle usually forward of the

articular eminence condylar displacement: positioning of the condyle out of its normal location in the glenoid fossa

1condylar guidance : mandibular guidance generated by the condyle and articular disc traversing the contour of the glenoid fossae

2condylar guidance : the mechanical form located in the upper posterior region of an articulator that controls movement of its mobile member

condylar guide assembly : the components of an articulator that guide movement of the condylar


condylar guide inclination : the angle formed by the inclination of a condylar guide control surface of an articulator and a specified reference plane-see LATERAL CONDYLAR INCLINATION

condylar hinge position : the position of the condyles of the mandible in the glenoid fossae at which hinge axis movement is possible (GPT-4)

condylar inclination : the direction of the lateral condyle path (GPT-4)

condylar path : that path traveled by the mandibular condyle in the temporomandibular joint during various mandibular movements

condylar path element: the member of a dental articulator that controls the direction of condylar movement

condylar path tracing : a graphic registration of the movement of the condyle-see MANDIBULAR TRACING


condylar subluxation : a self-reducing incomplete or partial dislocation of the condyle

condylarthrosis n: an ellipsoidal articulation; a modification of the ball/socket type of synovial joint in which the articular surfaces are ellipsoid rather than spheroid. Owing to the arrangement of the muscles and ligaments around the joint, all movements are permitted except rotation about a vertical axis- called also articulation ellipsoidea, condylar articulation, condylar joint, condyloid joint, or ellipsoidal joint

condyle : an articular prominence of a bone, i.e., in the mandible, an ellipsoidal projection of bone that articulates with the glenoid fossa-con·dy·lar adj-see CONDYLAR PATH, LATERAL CONDYLAR PATH, MANDIBULAR CONDYLE, NECK OF THE CONDYLE

condyle chord: see CONDYLAR AXIS

condyle head: see CONDYLE

condyle path: see CONDYLAR PATH

condylotomy: surgical cut through the neck of the condyloid process. Also refers to surgical removal of a portion of the articulating surface of the mandibular condyle (called a condylar shave)

cone: one of the receptors of color vision found in the retinal layer of the eye and concentrated in the macula lutea

con·gen·i·tal : existing at, and usually before, birth; referring to conditions that are present at birth, irrespective of their causation

connecting bar: see MAJOR CONNECTOR

connective tissue : a tissue of mesodermal origin rich in interlacing processes that supports or binds together other tissues

1con·nec·tor : in removable dental prosthodontics, the portion of a removable dental prosthesis that unites its components-usage: see BAR C., CONTINUOUS BAR C., MAJOR C., MINOR C.

2con·nec·tor : in fixed dental prosthodontics, the portion of a fixed dental prosthesis that unites the retainer(s) and pontic(s)-usage: see INTERNAL C., NONRIGID C., RIGID C., SUBOCCLUSAL C.

connector bar: see BAR CONNECTOR

con·sul·ta·tion: a deliberation between those who render health care regarding a patient’s diagnosis and/or their treatment

1con·tact : the union or junction of surfaces; the apparent touching or tangency of bodies-usage: see PROXIMAL CONTACT

2con·tact : to make contact; to bring into contact; to enter or be in contact with-usage: see BALANCING OCCLUSAL C., DEFLECTIVE OCCLUSAL C., INITIAL OCCLUSAL C., OCCLUSAL C.

contact surface : the region on the proximal surface of a tooth that touches an adjacent tooth

continuous bar connector: a metal bar usually resting on the lingual surfaces of mandibular anterior teeth to aid in their stabilization and act as an indirect retainer in extension base partial removable dental prostheses

continuous bar indirect retainer: see CONTINUOUS BAR CONNECTOR


continuous beam : a beam that continues over several supports, with those supports not at the beam end bearing equally free supports (GPT-4)

continuous clasp 1: in removable dental prosthodontics, a circumferential retainer (clasp) whose body emanates from an occlusal rest and extends across the buccal or lingual surface of more than one tooth (hence, continuing on) before engaging an undercut on the proximal wall farthest from the occlusal rest

2: any one of several early 20th century designs for clasping natural teeth to retain a partial removable dental prosthesis; terms for such clasps included wrought continuous interdental clasp, wrought continuous interdental support.

continuous gum denture 1: an artificial denture consisting of porcelain teeth and tinted porcelain

denture base material fused to a platinum base 2: according to Joseph Richardson, “plain single teeth, made for the purpose, are arranged and soldered to a plate properly fitted to the mouth, after which different mineral compounds, made to represent the natural gums, roof, etc., are applied to the plate and teeth in a plastic state, then carved and trimmed in proper form, and by means of a strong furnace heat these compounds, which are called the body and the gum enamel, are fused, thus producing a continuous gum, root, and rugae of the mouth, without seam or crevice.” The technique is attributed to Dr. John Allen (American)

continuous loop wire clasp : attributed to J. Wright Beach, DDS, this clasp assembly was used to completely encircle a tooth, particularly “a straight sided” tooth, by means of one wire. If the retained was not continuous, it was described as an open loop wire clasp

continuous spectrum: a spectrum or section of the spectrum in which radiations of all wavelengths are present; opposed to line spectra or band spectra

1con·tour : an outline, especially of a curving or irregular figure: the line representing this outline; the general form or structure of something-usage: see HEIGHT OF CONTOUR, TRANSITIONAL CONTOUR

2con·tour : following contour lines or forming furrows or ridges along them; made to fit the contour of something

3con·tour: to shape the contour of; to shape so as to fit contours; to construct in conformity to a contour

con·tra·be·vel 1: an external bevel arising from the occlusal surface or edge of a tooth preparation and placed at an angle that opposes or contrasts the angle of the surface it arises from 2: an external bevel arising from the occlusal surface or edge of a preparation-see BEVEL

con·trac·tion: in muscle physiology, the development of tension in a muscle in response to a stimulus-usage: see ISOMETRIC C., ISOTONIC C., POSTURAL C.

con·trac·ture : a permanent shortening of a muscle-see MUSCLE C., MYOFIBROTIC CAPSULAR C., MYOSTATIC C.

con·tra·lat·er·al : occurring on or acting in conjunction with similar parts on an opposite side

contralateral condyle: see NONWORKING SIDE CONDYLE

convergence angle 1. the taper of a crown preparation 2. the angle, measured in degrees, formed between opposing axial walls when a tooth or teeth are prepared for crowns or fixed dental prostheses. Usage- this term is best described as the total occlusal convergence

co·or·di·na·tion : smooth, controlled symmetrical movement

1cope: the upper half of any flask used in casting; the upper or cavity side of a denture flask used in conjunction with the drag or lower half of the flask-see DRAG

2cope to dress, cover, or furnish with a cope; to cover, as if with a cope or coping

1cop·ing 1: a long, enveloping ecclesiastical vestment 2a: something resembling a cope (as by concealing or covering)

2cop·ing : a thin covering or crown-usage: see C. IMPRESSION, TRANSFER C.

coping impression : an impression, usually encompassing an entire dental arch, that uses metal or resin copings placed on prepared teeth. The copings are repositioned before the pouring of a working cast

coping pick-up impression: see COPING IMPRESSION

coping prosthesis: see OVERDENTURE

copolymer resin : polymers formed from more than one type of molecular repeat unit

copper band : a copper cylinder employed as a matrix for making an impression

cor·al·i·form: having the form of coral; branched like a coral; often with reference to certain types of hydroxylapatite implant materials

core : the center or base of a structure

co·ro·nal 1: of or relating to a corona or crown

2: or relating to any longitudinal plane or section that passes through a body at right angles to the median plane

3: pertaining to the crown of a tooth

coronal plane : lying in the direction of the coronal suture, of or relating to the frontal plane that passes through the long axis of a body

coronoid maxillary space : the region between the medial aspect of the coronoid process of the mandible and the buccal aspect of the tuberosity of the maxilla, bounded anteriorly by the zygomatic arch

coronoid process : the thin triangular rounded eminence originating from the anterosuperior surface of the ramus of the mandible-see HYPERPLASIA OF THE C.P.

coronoidectomy: surgical removal of the coronoid process

co·ro·no·plas·ty : alteration or change in morphology of the coronal portion of natural teeth by the use of abrasive instruments

corrected cast: see ALTERED CAST

corrective wax: see DENTAL IMPRESSION WAX

correlated color temperature : the term describing the color of white light sources. Specifically, it is the temperature of the Planckion (black body) radiator that produces the chromaticity most similar to that produced by the light source expressed in degrees Kelvin or in mired; it is measured in degrees Kelvin, to which a black body must be raised to provide the closest match, in chromaticity, to a particular light source

cor·rode 1: deterioration of a metal due to an electrochemical reaction within its environment 2: to eat away by degrees as if by gnawing 3: to wear away gradually usually by chemical action

cor·ro·sion : the action, process, or effect of corroding; a product of corroding; the loss of elemental constituents to the adjacent environment

cor·ro·sive : tending or having the power to corrode

cortical bone : the peripheral layer of compact osseous tissue

coun·ter·die : the reverse image of a die; usually made of a softer and lower fusing metal than the die (GPT-1)

coup·ling : a device that serves to link or connect the ends of adjacent parts or objects

coupling lug : a small projecting part of a larger member; a projection or a casting to which a bolt or other part may be attached

covalent bond : a chemical bond between two atoms or radicals formed by the sharing of a pair (single bond), two pairs (double bond), or three pairs (triple bond) of electrons-called also primary bond

cover screw: see HEALING SCREW

cranial base : the inferior part of the skull that is thought to be relatively stable throughout life and is used in cephalometrics as a landmark from which to measure changes due to growth, time, or treatment

cranial prosthesis : a biocompatible, permanently implanted replacement (maxillofacial prosthesis) for a portion of the skull bones; an artificial replacement for a portion of the skull bones-called also cranial implant, cranioplasty prosthesis, skull plate

craniofacial defects : malformations associated with the head and face craniofacial dysjunction fracture: see LE FORT III FRACTURE

craniomandibular articulation : both temporomandibular joints functioning together as a bilateral sliding hinge joint connecting the mandible to the cranium-syn TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINTS

cra·ter : in periodontics, a saucer shaped defect of soft tissue or bone

1craze: to produce minute cracks on the surface or glaze of; to develop a mesh of fine cracks

2craze : a crack in a surface or coating (as of glaze or enamel)

1creep : creep·ing : to slip or gradually shift position; to change shape permanently due to prolonged stress or exposure to high temperature

2creep : the slow change in dimensions of an object due to prolonged exposure to high temperature or stress

crep·i·ta·tion : a crackling or grating noise in a joint during movement, liken to the throwing of fine salt into a fire or rubbing hair between the fingers; the noise made by rubbing together the ends of a fracture

crep·i·tus : see CREPITATION, JOINT C.

crest: a ridge or prominence on a part of a body; in dentistry, the most coronal portion of the alveolar process

crest of the ridge : the highest continuous surface of the residual ridge-not necessarily coincident with the center of the ridge

crevicular epithelium : the non-keratinized epithelium of the gingival crevice

crevicular fluid : the fluid that seeps through the crevicular epithelium; this is usually increased in the presence of inflammation

cribriform plate : in dentistry, the alveolar bone proper

crist·o·bal·ite : an allotropic form of crystalline silica used in dental casting investments

cross arch balance: see C.A.B. ARTICULATION

cross arch balanced articulation: the simultaneous contact of the buccal and lingual cusps of the working side maxillary teeth with the opposing buccal and lingual cusps of the mandibular teeth, concurrent with contact of the nonworking side maxillary lingual cusps with the mandibular buccal cusps

cross arch stabilization : resistance against dislodging or rotational forces obtained by using a partial removable dental prosthesis design that uses natural teeth on the opposite side of the dental arch from the edentulous space to assist in stabilization


cross bite teeth: see REVERSE ARTICULATION TEETH

cross bite occlusion: see REVERSE ARTICULATION

cross pinning : the augmentation achieved in retention of a cast restoration by the placement of a pin through the axial wall of a dental casting into tooth dentin


cross tooth balanced articulation : the harmonious contact of opposing working side buccal and lingual cusps

1crown 1: the highest part, as the topmost part of the skull, head or tooth; the summit; that portion of a tooth occlusal to the dentinoenamel junction or an artificial substitute for this 2: an artificial replacement that restores missing tooth structure by surrounding part or all of the remaining structure with a material such as cast metal, porcelain, or a combination of materials such as metal and porcelain

2crown : to place on the head, as to place a crown on a tooth, dental implant or tooth substitute-usage: implies fabrication of a restoration for a tooth on a natural tooth, dental implant and/or dental implant abutment

crown flask : a sectional, box like case in which a sectional mold is made of artificial stone or plaster of parts for the purpose of processing dentures or other resinous restorations

crown fracture : micro or macroscopic cleavage in the coronal portion of a tooth

crown-implant ratio: the physical relationship between the portion of the implant-supported restoration within alveolar bone compared with the portion not within the alveolar bone, frequently determined by radiographic examination

crown lengthening slang: see LENGTHENING OF THE CLINICAL CROWN

crown-root ratio : the physical relationship between the portion of the tooth within alveolar bone compared with the portion not within the alveolar bone, as determined by radiograph

crown slitter : a mechanical device used to slit the axial surface of a swayed artificial crown to facilitate its removal

cru·ci·ble : a vessel or container made of any refractory material (frequently porcelain) used for melting or calcining any substance that requires a high degree of heat

crucible former : the base to which a sprue former is attached while the wax pattern is being invested in refractory investment; a convex rubber, plastic, or metal base that forms a concave depression or crucible in the refractory investment

CT: acronym for Computerized Tomography

crypt 1: a chamber wholly or partly underground 2: in anatomy, a pit, depression or simple tubular gland

cuff : something that encircles; a band about any body

cul-de-sac: a blind pouch or tubular cavity closed at one end

cumulative dose : the total accumulated dose resulting from a single or repeated exposure to radiation of the same region or of the whole body; if used in area monitoring, it represents the accumulated radiation exposure over a given period of time cure vb (14c): see POLYMERIZE

1curve : bent or formed into a curve

2curve : to take a turn, change, or deviation from a straight line or plane surface without angularity or sharp breaks; a non-angular deviation from a straight line or surface-see REVERSE C.

curve of Monson: eponym for a proposed ideal curve of occlusion in which each cusp and incisal edge touches or conforms to a segment of the surface of a sphere 8 inches in diameter with its center in the region of the glabella.

curve of occlusion: the average curve established by the incisal edges and occlusal surfaces of the anterior and posterior teeth in either arch

curve of Pleasure1: eponym for a helicoid curve of occlusion that, when viewed in the frontal plane, conforms to a curve that is convex from the superior view, except for the last molars which reverse that pattern

2: in excessive wear of the teeth, the obliteration of the cusps and formation of either flat or cupped-out occlusal surfaces, associated with reversal of the occlusal plane of the premolar, first and second molar teeth (the third molars being generally unaffected), whereby the occlusal surfaces of the mandibular teeth slope facially instead of lingually and those of the maxillary teeth incline lingually-syn ANTIMONSON CURVE, FREQUENCY CURVE, PROBABILITY CURVE, REVERSE CURVE

curve of Spee: eponym for ANTEROPOSTERIOR CURVE

Spee FG. Die Verschiebrangsbahn des Unterkiefers am Schadell. Arch Anat Physiol (Leipz) 1890;16:285-94.

curve of Wilson : eponym for the MEDIOLATERAL CURVE 2: in the theory that occlusion should be spherical, the curvature of the cusps as projected on the frontal plane expressed in both arches; the curve in the lower arch being concave and the one in the upper arch being convex. The curvature in the lower arch is affected by an equal lingual inclination of the right and left molars so that the tip points of the corresponding cross-aligned cusps can be placed into the circumferences of a circle. The transverse cuspal curvature of the upper teeth is affected by the equal buccal inclinations of their long axes

cur·vi·lin·ear : consisting of or bounded by curved lines; represented by a curved line

cusp : cone-shaped protuberance on the crown of a tooth that forms the occlusal surface

cusp angle : the angle made by the average slope of a cusp with the cusp plane measured mesiodistal or buccolingually cusp-fossa articulation scheme: an occlusal arrangement where the maxillary and mandibular centric cusps articulate with the opposing fossae in maximum intercuspation

cusp height : the perpendicular distance between the tip of a cusp and its base plane cusp-marginal ridge articulation scheme: an occlusal arrangement where the mandibular second premolar buccal cusp and mandibular molar mesiobuccal cusps articulate with the opposing occlusal embrasures in maximum intercuspation

cusp plane : the plane determined by the two buccal cusp tips and the highest lingual cusp of a molar

cusp plane angle : the incline of the cusp plane in relation to the plane of occlusion

cuspal interference: see DEFLECTIVE OCCLUSAL CONTACT


cuspid guided articulation: see CANINE PROTECTED ARTICULATION


cuspid lifted articulation: see CANINE PROTECTED ARTICULATION

cuspid protected occlusion: see CANINE PROTECTED ARTICULATION


cuspid rise articulation: see CANINE PROTECTED ARTICULATION

cuspless teeth : teeth designed without cuspal prominence on the occlusal surface-see NONANATOMIC TEETH,


custom anterior guide table: used for transferring to an articulator the contacts of anterior teeth when determining their influence on border movements of the mandible. Acrylic resin is molded by the articulator pin to record and preserve this information-comp


custom tray : an individualized impression tray made from a cast recovered from a preliminary impression. It is used in making a final impression

cy·ano·acryl·ate : a single component, moisture activated, thermoplastic group of adhesives characterized by rapid polymerization and excellent bond strength.

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