GPT Terms -D

Davis crown: eponym for a dental restoration supported by a dowel in the root canal over which was cemented a porcelain tube tooth in direct contact with the root face of the tooth. A later modification involved a gold casting that improved the fit between the root and artificial tooth

de·bride·ment : the removal of inflamed, devitalized, contaminated tissue or foreign material from or adjacent to a lesion

deciduous dentition: see PRIMARY DENTITION

de·cor·ti·ca·tion 1: a process of removing the outer covering (as in enamel, bark, husks, etc.) from something 2:surgical removal of the cortex of an organ, an enveloping membrane or fibrinous covering—de·cor·ti·catede·cor·ti·cat·or

decreased occlusal vertical dimension : a reduction in the distance measured between two anatomic points when the teeth are in occlusal contact

deep bite: see VERTICAL OVERLAP

deep heat therapy: see DIATHERMY

defective color vision : the condition in which color discrimination is significantly reduced in comparison with the normal trichromat. The forms of color defective vision can be divided into three main groups—dichromatic vision, anomalous trichromatic vision, and monochromatic vision—see COLOR BLINDNESS, COLOR DEFICIENCY

definitive cast: : a replica of the tooth surfaces, residual ridge areas, and/or other parts of the dental arch and/or facial structures used to fabricate a dental restoration or prosthesis; called also final cast

defective occlusal contact : contact that is capable of guiding the mandible from its original path of action into a different path of motion or capable of disturbing the relation between a denture base and its supporting tissues (GPT-1)

definitive obturator : a maxillofacial prosthesis that replaces part or all of the maxilla and associated teeth lost due to surgery or trauma Editorial note: a definitive obturator is made when it is deemed that further tissue changes or recurrence of tumor are unlikely and a more permanent prosthetic rehabilitation can be achieved; it is intended for long- term use

definitive palatal lift prosthesis: see PALATAL LIFT PROSTHESIS

definitive prosthesis : any dental or maxillofacial prosthesis designed for long-term use

definitive speech aid prosthesis: see SPEECH AID PROSTHESIS

de·flec·tion 1: a turning aside or off course 2: a continuing eccentric displacement of the mandibular midline incisal path symptomatic of restriction in movement

deflective occlusal contact : a contact that displaces a tooth, diverts the mandible from its intended movement, or displaces a removable denture from its basal seat—usage: see OCCLUSAL DISHARMONY, OCCLUSAL PREMATURITY

de·for·ma·tion : the change of form or shape of an object

de·gasde·gassedde·gassing 1: to remove gas from an object or substance

2: the name commonly used to denote the first heat cycle (oxidation cycle) in fabrication of a metal ceramic restoration that removes surface impurities from the metallic component and produces surface oxides prior to the application of opaque porcelain

degenerative arthritis: see OSTEOARTHRITIS

degenerative joint disease: see OSTEOARTHRITIS

de·glu·ti·tion : the act of swallowing

de·hiscede·hiscedde·hisc·ing: to split or peal down along a natural line; to discharge the contents by so splitting

de·his·cence : an act or instance of dehiscing, i.e., separation of wound margins

delayed dentition : the eruption of the first teeth of the primary dentition or the permanent dentition considerably later than the normally expected time (after the thirteenth month of life for the primary dentition and after the seventh year of life for the permanent dentition in humans)

delayed dis-occlusion: see DELAYED DISCLUSION

delayed disclusion : deferred separation of the posterior teeth due to the anterior guidance

de·liv·er·y: see PLACEMENT

delta E : total color difference computed by use of a color difference equation. It is generally calculated as the square root of the sums of the squares of the chromaticity difference and the lightness difference. It signifies the difference between sample and standard

de·min·er·al·iza·tion 1: loss of minerals (as salts of calcium) from the body 2: in dentistry, decalcification, usually related to the dental caries process

de·nas·al·i·ty : the quality of the voice when the nasal passages are obstructed to prevent adequate nasal resonance during speech—see HYPONASALITY

de·ner·va·tion : resection of or removal of the nerves to an organ or part

den·tal : of or pertaining to the teeth

dental arch : the composite structure of the natural teeth and alveolar bone

dental articulation : the contact relationships of maxillary and mandibular teeth as they move against each other—usage: this is a dynamic process

dental biomechanics : the relationship between the biologic behavior of oral structures and the physical influence of a dental restoration—syn DENTAL BIOPHYSICS

dental cast : a positive life size reproduction of a part or parts of the oral cavity

dental casting investment : a material consisting principally of an allotrope of silica and a bonding agent. The bonding substance may be gypsum (for use in lower casting temperatures) or phosphates and silica (for use in higher casting temperatures)

dental dysfunction : abnormal functioning of dental structures; partial disturbance or functional impairment of a dental organ

dental element: slang for a dental prosthesis that receives part or all support/retention from one or more endosteal, eposteal or transosteal dental implants

dental engineering 1: the application of physical, mechanical, and mathematical principles to dentistry 2: the application of engineering principles to dentistry (GPT-4)

dental esthetics : the application of the principles of esthetics to the natural or artificial teeth and restorations

dental geriatrics 1: the branch of dental care involving problems peculiar to advanced age and aging 2: dentistry for the aged patient—see GERODONTICS, GERODONTOLOGY

dental implant : 1. a prosthetic device made of alloplastic material(s) implanted into the oral tissues beneath the mucosal or/and periosteal layer, and on/or within the bone to provide retention and support for a fixed or removable dental prosthesis; a substance that is placed into or/and upon the jaw bone to support a fixed or removable dental prosthesis 2. the portion of an implant that provides support for the dental implant abutment(s) through adaptation upon (eposteal), within (endosteal), or through (transosteal) the bone —usage: although dental implants may be classified by their silhouette or geometrical form (i.e., fin, screw, cylinder, blade, basket, root form, etc.) generally dental implants are classified based on their anchorage component as it relates to the bone that provides support and stability. Thus, there are three basic types of dental implants: eposteal dental implants, endosteal dental implants, and transosteal dental implants. Some dental implants possess both eposteal and endosteal components (by design or subsequent anchorage change); the decision as to what anchorage system provides the most support at initial placement determines which category is used to best describe the dental implant; the dental implant(s) provide bony support via the dental implant attachment while the dental implant abutment(s) connect the dental implant to the fixed or removable dental prosthesis—see also DENTAL IMPLANT ABUTMENT, ENDOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT, EPOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT, TRANSOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT—comp MUCOSAL INSERT

dental implant abutment : the portion of a dental implant that serves to support and/or retain any fixed or removable dental prosthesis—usage: frequently dental implant abutments, especially those used with endosteal dental implants, are changed to alter abutment design or use before a definitive dental prosthesis is fabricated. Such a preliminary abutment is termed an interim (dental implant) abutment. The abutment chosen to support the definitive prosthesis is termed a definitive (dental implant) abutment. Dental implant abutments frequently are described by their form (i.e., cylindrical, barrel), material (i.e., ceramic, titanium, zirconia ceramic), or special design factors (i.e., internal hex lock, external hex lock, spline)

dental implant attachment : 1. the biochemical/mechanical interconnection between the dental implant and the tissues to which it is attached 2. slang expression for the means of retention of the dental implant abutment to the dental implant

dental implant analog: a replica of the entire dental implant, not intended for human implantation

dental implant loading: the process of placing axial or tangential force on a dental implant usually associated with the intentional exposure of the dental implant either at the time of initial surgical placement of the dental implant or subsequent surgical exposure. Such forces may come from any of a variety of sources including intentional or/and unintentional occlusal loading, unintentional forces from the tongue or other oral tissues, food bolus, as well as alveolar/osseous deformation. Generally application of intentional occlusal forces may be termed immediate loading, progressive loading, or delayed loading –see AXIAL LOADING

dental implant system (1993): dental implant components that are designed to mate together. An implant system can represent a specific concept, inventor, or patent. It consists of the necessary parts and instruments to complete the implant placement and abutment components

dental impression : a negative imprint of an oral structure used to produce a positive replica of the structure to be used as a permanent record or in the production of a dental restoration or prosthesis—see IMPRESSION

dental impression wax : any thermoplastic wax used to make impressions for dental use

dental plaster : the beta-form of calcium sulfate hemihydrate. It is a fibrous aggregate of fine crystals with capillary pores that are irregular in shape and porous in character

dental prosthesis : an artificial replacement (prosthesis) of one or more teeth (up to the entire dentition in either arch) and associated dental/alveolar structures. Dental prostheses usually are subcategorized as either fixed dental prostheses or removable dental prostheses —see also FIXED DENTAL PROSTHESIS, REMOVABLE DENTAL PROSTHESIS; comp to MAXILLOFACIAL PROSTHESIS, ANCILLARY PROSTHESIS

dental prosthetic laboratory procedures : the steps in the fabrication of a dental prosthesis that do not require the presence of the patient for their completion

dental senescence : that condition of the teeth and associated structures in which there is deterioration due to aging or premature aging processes

dental shade selection: see TOOTH COLOR SELECTION

dental stone : the alpha-form of calcium sulfate hemihydrate with physical properties superior to the beta-form (dental plaster). The alpha-form consists of cleavage fragments and crystals in the form of rods or prisms, and is therefore more dense than the beta-form

den·tate : having teeth or pointed conical projections

den·tin : a calcareous material similar to but harder and denser than bone that comprises the principle mass of the tooth—den·tin·al adj; also spelled den·tine \

dentin porcelain obs:—see BODY PORCELAIN

den·ti·tion : the teeth in the dental arch

dentofacial orthopedics : the branch of dentistry that treats abnormal jaw and tooth relationships

den·to·form : having the likeness of a tooth; a tooth-like substitute

den·tu·lous 1: possessing natural teeth 2: a condition in which natural teeth are present in the mouth—syn DENTATE


denture adhesive : a material used to adhere a denture to the oral mucosa

denture basal surface: see DENTURE BASE

denture base : the part of a denture that rests on the foundation tissues and to which teeth are attached—usage: see TINTED D.B.

denture base material : any substance of which a denture base may be made

denture base saddle 1: the part of a denture that rests on the oral mucosa and to which the teeth are attached 2: the part of a complete or removable partial denture that rests on the basal seat and to which the teeth are attached (GPT-4)—see DENTURE BASE

denture bearing area: see DENTURE FOUNDATION AREA

denture border 1: the margin of the denture base at the junction of the polished surface and the impression surface 2: the peripheral border of a denture base at the facial, lingual, and posterior limits

denture characterization : modification of the form and color of the denture base and teeth to produce a more lifelike appearance

denture curing obs: the process by which the denture base materials are hardened to the form of a denture mold (GPT-4)—see DENTURE PROCESSING

denture design : a planned visualization of the form and extent of a dental prosthesis arrived at after study of all factors involved (GPT-4)

denture esthetics : the effect produced by a dental prosthesis that affects the beauty and attractiveness of the person

denture flange : the part of the denture base that extends from the cervical ends of the teeth to the denture border

denture flask: see CASTING FLASK, CROWN FLASK

denture foundation : the oral structures available to support a denture

denture foundation area : the surfaces of the oral structures available to support a denture

denture occlusal surface : the portion of the surface of a denture that makes contact with its antagonist

denture packing : the act of pressing a denture base material into a mold within a refractory flask- see DENTURE RESIN PACKING

denture placement: see PLACEMENT

denture polished surface : the portion of the surface of a denture that extends in an occlusal direction from the border of the denture and includes the palatal surface. It is the part of the denture base that is usually polished, and it includes the buccal and lingual surfaces of the teeth

denture processing substand 1: the means by which the denture base materials are polymerized to the form of a denture2: the conversion of the wax pattern of a denture or a portion of a denture into resin or other material

denture prognosis obs: an opinion or judgment given in advance of treatment for the prospects for success in the fabrication of dentures and for their usefulness (GPT-4)

denture prosthetics obs 1: the replacement of the natural teeth in the arch and their associated parts by artificial substitutes 2: the art and science of the restoration of an edentulous mouth (GPT-4)—see COMPLETE DENTURE PROSTHODONTICS

denture resin packing : filling and pressing a denture base material into a mold within a refractory flask

denture retention 1: the resistance in the movement of a denture away from its tissue foundation especially in a vertical direction 2: a quality of a denture that holds it to the tissue foundation and/or abutment teeth—see DENTURE STABILITY

denture service : the procedures that are involved in the diagnosis and subsequent fabrication and maintenance of artificial substitutes for missing natural teeth and associated structures

denture space 1: the portion of the oral cavity that is or may be occupied by the maxillary and/or mandibular denture(s) 2: the space between and around the residual ridges that is available for dentures 3: the area occupied by dentures where formerly the teeth, alveolar bone, and surrounding soft and hard tissues were located

denture stability 1: the resistance of a denture to movement on its tissue foundation, especially to lateral (horizontal) forces as opposed to vertical displacement (termed denture retention) 2: a quality of a denture that permits it to maintain a state of equilibrium in relation to its tissue foundation and/or abutment teeth—see DENTURE RETENTION

denture supporting area: see DENTURE FOUNDATION AREA

denture supporting structures : the tissues (teeth and/or residual ridges) that serve as the foundation for removable partial or complete dentures (GPT-4)

denture surfaces: see DENTURE POLISHED SURFACE

den·tur·ism : the fabrication and delivery of removable dentures by non-dentists

den·tur·ist 1: any non-dentist who makes, fits, and repairs removable dentures directly for the public

2: a non-dentist licensed to provide complete dentures directly to the public

de·pas·siv·a·tion : loss of corrosion protection due to damage or removal of the protective oxide surface film on a passivated metal

de·pro·gram·mer : various types of devices or materials used to alter the proprioceptive mechanism during mandibular closure

determinants of mandibular movement : those anatomic structures that dictate or limit the movements of the mandible. The anterior determinant of mandibular movement is the dental articulation. The posterior determinants of mandibular movement are the temporomandibular articulations and their associated structures

de·tru·sion : downward movement of the mandibular condyle

deuteranomalous vision : a form of anomalous trichromatism in which the viewer requires more green in a mixture of red and green to match spectral yellow than does a normal trichromat. The relative spectral visual sensitivity does not differ noticeably from normal. Hue discrimination is poor in the red to green region of the spectrum

deu·ter·an·opia : green color blindness

developmental anomaly : unusual sequelae of development; a deviation from normal shape or size

developmental dysmorphia: anomaly of growth seemingly related to extrinsic interference from contiguous or adjacent structures

developmental dysplasia: any abnormality of growth or disharmony between parts due to growth

developmental hyperplasia : excessive growth development

developmental hypoplasia : diminution in growth development

de·vest : the retrieval of a casting or prosthesis from an investing medium

de·vi·a·tion : with respect to movement of the mandible, a discursive movement that ends in the centered position and is indicative of interference during movement

de·vice: something developed by the application of ideas or principles that are designed to serve a special purpose or perform a special function- see RESTORATION

de·vit·ri·fi·ca·tion : to eliminate vitreous characteristics partly or wholly; to crystallize

di·ag·no·sisdi·ag·no·ses : the determination of the nature of a disease

1di·ag·nos·tic : the practice of diagnosis

di·ag·nos·tic : relating to or used in diagnosis

diagnostic cast : a life-size reproduction of a part or parts of the oral cavity and/or facial structures for the purpose of study and treatment planning

diagnostic denture : an interim removable dental prosthesis placed for the purpose of evaluation and planning later therapy


diagnostic mounting: see MOUNTING

diagnostic occlusal adjustment: an evaluation of the process and implications of subtractive tooth adjustment on articulator-mounted casts for the determination of the benefits and consequences of an occlusal adjustment

diagnostic occlusal prosthesis: a removable dental prosthesis, usually made of acrylic resin, that includes an overlay of the occlusal surfaces, designed to evaluate a patient’s response to extensive restorative intervention

diagnostic radiation : the use of radiographs for the determination of the nature of a disease

diagnostic setups: see TOOTH ARRANGEMENT

diagnostic splint: see OCCLUSAL DEVICE

diagnostic study cast: see DIAGNOSTIC CAST

diagnostic tooth preparation: preparations on dental casts performed to evaluate and optimize definitive tooth preparations

diagnostic waxing: waxing of intended restorative contours on dental casts for the purpose of evaluation and planning restorations

diagnostic wax up: see TOOTH ARRANGEMENT

diarthrodial joint: a freely moving joint

di·ar·thro·sis : a specialized articulation permitting more or less free movement; a synovial joint

di·a·ste·ma : a space between two adjacent teeth in the same dental arch

dia·ther·my : tissue resistance generated heat resulting from high-frequency electric current

di·a·tor·ic : a channel placed in denture teeth to serve as a mechanical means of retaining the teeth in a chemically dissimilar denture base material

dichromatic vision : defective color vision characterized by the interpretation of wavelengths from the red portion of the spectrum matching a given green. There are two known sub classifications. One requires red light to be approximately 10 times brighter than the red selected by the other to achieve a similar color mismatch

di·chro·ma·tism : a form of defective color vision in which a mixture of only two can match all colors. In dichromatic vision, the spectrum is seen as comprising only two regions of different hue separated by an achromatic band. Dichromatic vision can be subdivided into three types: protanopia, deuteranopia, and tritanopia

die : the positive reproduction of the form of a prepared tooth in any suitable substance

die spacer : an agent applied to a die to provide space for the luting agent in the finished casting

differential diagnosis : the process of identifying a condition by comparing the signs and symptoms of all pathologic processes that may produce similar signs and symptoms

dilaceration 1: a tearing apart 2: in dentistry, a condition due to injury of a tooth during its development and characterized by a band or crease at the junction of the crown and root, or alternatively by tortuous roots with abnormal curvatures

dimensional stability : the ability of a material to retain its size and form

dimensions of color : terms used to describe the three dimensional nature of color. In the Munsell Color Order System, the dimensions are named hue, value, and chroma. These are used to describe the color family (hue), the lightness/darkness (value), and the purity or strength (chroma)

direct bone impression : a negative likeness of bone from which overlying tissues have been reflected

direct lift technique: a means of fabricating porcelain labial margins whereby porcelain is condensed directly onto the die—comp PORCELAIN WAX TECHNIQUE

direct pulp capping : application of a material to exposed vital pulp to protect it and promote healing

direct retainer : that component of a partial removable dental prosthesis used to retain and prevent dislodgment, consisting of a clasp assembly or precision attachment

direct retention : retention obtained in a partial removable dental prosthesis by the use of clasps or attachments that resist removal from the abutment teeth

dis·ar·tic·u·la·tion : separation of joint parts

disc : var. spelling of disk

disk-condyle complex : the condyle and its disk articulation that functions as a simple hinge joint

disk : with respect to the temporomandibular joint, the avascular intraarticular tissue—spelled also disc

disk degeneration : degenerative changes in the temporomandibular joint articular disk

disk derangement : an abnormal relationship of the articular disk to the condyle, fossa, and or/and eminence

disk detachment: a peripheral separation of the disk from its capsular, ligamentous, or osseous attachments

disk dislocation: see DISK DERANGEMENT

disk displacement: see DISK DERANGEMENT

disk displacement with reduction : disk displacement in which the temporomandibular joint disk is displaced at rest (usually in an anterior-medial direction) but resumes a normal position on mandibular movement, usually accompanied by a clicking sound

disk displacement without reduction : disk displacement in which the temporomandibular joint disk is displaced at rest and does not resume a normal position on mandibular movement —see CLOSED LOCK

disk interference : interference with mandibular movement due to disk related pathosis and/or dysfunction

disk locking : disk derangement that will not reduce or restore to its normal place or relationship

disk perforation : a circumscribed tear in the articular disk, generally as the result of degenerative thinning in the central portion, usually with longstanding increased compressive forces, permitting communication between the superior and inferior joint spaces. There is no disruption at the peripheral attachments to the capsule, ligaments, or bone

disk prolapse : rotation of the disk forward on the condyle

disk space : the radiolucent area on a temporomandibular joint radiograph between the mandibular condyle and the articular fossa

disk thinning : degenerative decrease in disk thickness, usually as the result of long standing increased compressive forces

diskectomy: excision of the intraarticular disk

dis·clu·sion vb: see DISOCCLUSION

dis·junc·tor : any component of a prosthesis that serves to allow movement between two or more parts

dislocated fracture : a fracture of a bone near an articulation, with displacement of the condyloid process out of the articular fossa

dis·lo·ca·tion : the state or act of being dislocated, as displacement of one or more bones at a joint—usage: see CONDYLAR D., FUNCTIONAL D., MANDIBULAR D., PARTIAL D.

dis·oc·clude: see DISOCCLUSION

dis·oc·clu·sion : separation of opposing teeth during eccentric movements of the mandible—see DELAYED D., IMMEDIATE D.

displacement of the mandible : any abnormal relationship of the mandible when at rest

dis·tal : remote; farther from the point of reference; away from the median sagittal plane of the face following the curvature of the dental arch



dis·to·ver·sion: a deviation towards the distal

distraction of the condyle : displacement of the condyle in and inferior direction

distraction osteogenesis: a procedure whereby a segment of the jaw is sectioned by osteotomy and gradually displaced by a controlled movement

distributed mandibular lateral translation: see PROGRESSIVE MANDIBULAR LATERAL TRANSLATION

disuse atrophy : diminution in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or part as a result of inactivity

di·ver·gence 1: a drawing apart as a surface extends away from a common point 2: the reverse taper of walls of a preparation for a restoration—di·ver·gen·cy npl -cies

divergence angle : the sum of the angles of taper of opposing walls of a tooth preparation that diverge away from each other

docking device: see RADIATION CONE LOCATOR

Dolder bar : eponym for one of many bar attachments that splint teeth or roots together while acting as an abutment for a partial removable dental prosthesis. The bar is straight with parallel sides and a round top. The sleeve or clip that fits over the bar gains retention by friction only. The bar may be of variable size and is pear shaped in cross section, as is its accompanying sleeve. This clip allows for some measure of rotational movement about the bar

Dolder EJ. The bar joint mandibular denture. J PROSTHET DENT 1961;11:689-707.

donor site : an area of the body from which a graft is taken

double lip: hyperplasia of the mucosa of the upper lip producing a fold of tissue that gives the appearance of duplication of the lip

double wire clasp : a back-to-back wire circumferential clasp

dove·tail : a widened portion of a prepared cavity used to increase retention and/or resistance

dow·el : a post usually made of metal that is fitted into a prepared root canal of a natural tooth. When combined with an artificial crown or core, it provides retention and resistance for the restoration— See POST

dowel core crown: see POST-CORE CROWN

dowel crown obs: see DAVIS CROWN, RICHMOND CROWN

dowel pin \dou?al pi?n\: a metal pin used in stone casts to remove die sections and replace them accurately in the original position

drag: the lower or cast side of a refractory flask to which the cope is fitted

draw : the taper or convergence of walls of a preparation for a restoration; slang—DRAFT, DRAUGHT

dross1. the solid scum formed on the surface of a metal when molten or melted, often formed from oxides of various metals but sometimes arising from impurities and waste materials, 2. waste matter; refuge

duc·til·i·ty : the ability of a material to withstand permanent deformation under a tensile load without rupture; ability of a material to be plastically strained in tension. A material is brittle if it does not have appreciable plastic deformation in tension before rupture

dum·my, dum·mies obs: the replacement tooth or pontic in a fixed partial denture

duplicate denture : a second denture intended to be a replica of the first

du·rom·e·ter : an instrument for measuring hardness

dwt: pennyweight; called also pennyweight; a measurement of weight in the troy system equal to 24 grains, or 0.05 ounce. Its metric equivalent is 1.555 grams

dye : a colorant that does not scatter light but absorbs certain wavelengths and transmits others

dynamic relations : relations of two objects involving the element of relative movement of one object to another, as the relationship of the mandible to the maxillae (GPT-4)


dys·es·the·sia : an unpleasant abnormal sensation

dys·func·tion : the presence of functional disharmony between the morphologic form (teeth, occlusion, bones, joints) and function (muscles, nerves) that may result in pathologic changes in the tissues or produce a functional disturbance

dys·geu·sia : any disturbance in the sense of taste

dys·ki·nes·ia : impairment of the power of voluntary movement resulting in fragmentary or incomplete movement—see also INCOORDINATION

dys·la·lia : defective articulation due to faulty learning or to abnormality of the external speech organs and not due to lesions of the central nervous system

dys·ma·se·sis: difficulty in mastication

dys·os·to·sis : imperfect ossification

dysphagia : difficulty in swallowing

dys·phon·ia : impairment in the voice; difficulty in speaking

dys·pla·sia : abnormality of development—see MANDIBULAR D., MAXILLOMANDIBULAR D.

dys·ton·ia : acute irregular tonic muscular spasms, often with contortions of the tongue, jaw, eyes, neck, and sometimes the entire body

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