GPT terms – E

earbow : an instrument similar to a facebow that indexes to the external auditory meatus and registers the relation of the maxillary dental arch to the external auditory meatus and a horizontal reference plane. This instrument is used to transfer the maxillary cast to the articulator. The earbow provides an average anatomic dimension between the external auditory meatus and the horizontal axis of the mandible—see FACEBOW

early closing click : a click emanating from the temporomandibular joint that occurs at the initiation of retrusive translation

early mandibular lateral translation : the translatory portion of lateral movement in which the greatest portion occurs early in the forward movement of the nonworking side condyle as it leaves centric relation—see IMMEDIATE MANDIBULAR LATERAL TRANSLATION

early opening click : a temporomandibular joint click that occurs at initiation of the translation of the condyle(s)

EBA cement: acronym for eth oxybenzoic acid cement; reinforced zinc oxide-eugenol cement with part of the eugenol replaced by 2-ethoxybenzoic acid

eccentric l: not having the same center 2: deviating from a circular path 3: located elsewhere than at the geometric center 4:any position of the mandible other than that which is its normal position


eccentric interocclusal record : a registration of any maxillomandibular position other than centric relationship

eccentric jaw record: see ECCENTRIC INTEROCCLUSAL RECORD

eccentric jaw relation : any relationship between the jaws other than centric relation (GPT-4)

eccentric occlusion : an occlusion other than centric occlusion

eccentric position: see ECCENTRIC RELATION


eccentric relation : any relationship of the mandible to the maxilla other than centric relation—see ACQUIRED E.R.

ec·top·ic : occurring in an abnormal position or in an unusual manner or form—ec·top·i·cal·ly

ectopic eruption : eruption of a tooth out of its normal place or position

ede·ma : abnormal accumulation of fluid in the tissues

eden·tics : the art, science, and technique used in treating edentulous patients (GPT-4)

e·den·tu·late : to remove all teeth

e·den·tu·lous : without teeth, lacking teeth

edentulism : the state of being edentulous; without natural teeth

edge to edge articulation : articulation in which the opposing anterior teeth meet along their incisal edges when the teeth are in maximum intercuspation

edge to edge bite: see EDGE TO EDGE ARTICULATION

edge to edge occlusion: see EDGE TO EDGE ARTICULATION

educationally qualified prosthodontist : in the United States as defined by the American Board of Prosthodontics, a prosthodontist who has successfully completed an advanced educational program accredited by the ADA and is eligible to apply for examination by the American Board of Prosthodontics

e·las·tic : susceptible to being stretched, compressed, or distorted and then tending to resume the original shape

elastic limit : the greatest stress to which a material may be subjected and still be capable of returning to its original dimensions when such forces are released

elastic modulus : the stiffness or flexibility of a material within the elastic range. Within the elastic range, the material deforms in direct proportion to the stress applied as represented by Hooke’s law

e·las·tic·i·ty : the quality that allows a structure or material to return to its original form on removal of an external force—see MODULUS OF E.

e·las·to·mer : a polymer whose glass transition temperature is below its service temperature (usually room temperature). These materials are characterized by low stiffness and extremely large elastic strains—e·las·to·mer·ic adj

elastomeric impression material: a group of flexible chemical polymers, which are either chemically or physically cross-linked. Generally, they can be easily stretched and rapidly recover their original dimensions when applied stresses are released

electrical discharge machining 1. the process by which metal(s) is (are) altered in form using electrical current through conductive objects brought into physical contact with the metal surface 2. a precision metal removal process using an accurately controlled electrical discharge (a spark) to erode metal, usually performed in a liquid dielectric medium – syn SPARK EROSION

e·lec·trode 1: a medium used between an electric conductor and the object to which it is to be applied 2: an x-ray tube component from which electrons emanate or to which they are attracted. The positive electrode is the anode; the negative electrode is the cathode

electromagnetic spectrum : the range of energy waves that extend from gamma rays to radio waves. The eye is sensitive to a very narrow band of wavelengths between about 380 and 760 nm

electromagnetic wave : a disturbance that propagates outward from any electric charge that oscillates or is accelerated; far from the charge, it consists of vibrating electric and magnetic fields that move at the speed of light and are at right angles to each other and to the direction of motion

electromyographic biofeedback : an instrumental process that helps patients learn control over muscle tension levels previously under automatic control

e·lec·tro·my·og·ra·phy : the graphic recording of the electrical potential of muscle—see NOCTURNAL E.

e·lec·tron : the elemental unit of electricity. A stable elementary particle that is the negatively charged constituent of ordinary matter, having a mass of about 9.11 × 10-28 g (equivalent to 0.511 MeV) and a charge of about ?1.602 × 10?19 Coulomb—called also negative electron,negatron

electron accelerator : a device used in radiation treatment that accelerates electrons to high energies

electron beam therapy : treatment by electrons accelerated to high energies by a machine such as the betatron

electron volt : a unit of energy equal to the energy acquired by an electron when it passes through a potential difference of 1 volt in a vacuum; it is equal to (1.602192 +0.000007) × 10-19 volt. Abbreviated eV

e·lec·tro·plat·ing : the process of covering the surface of an object with a thin coating of metal by means of electrolysis

e·lec·tro·pol·ish·ing : the electrolytic removal of a thin layer of metal to produce a bright surface

el·e·ments : when used in reference to dental implants, component parts of a dental implant structure such as the dental implant, dental implant abutment, and abutment screw

elevator muscle : one of the muscles that, on contracting, elevates or closes the mandible

e·lon·ga·tion l: deformation as a result of tensile force application 2: the degree to which a material will stretch before breaking 3: the over eruption of a tooth

em·bed·ment : 1. the process of using a ceramic powder mixed with water to surround a glass-ceramic casting. The purpose of the procedure is to prevent distortion and limit the shrinkage of the casting 2. with reference to the physics of threaded unions, localized plastic deformation which occurs in screw threads or the mated components when applying preload.

em·bou·chure : the position and use of the lips, tongue, and teeth in playing a wind instrument

em·bra·sure l: the space formed when adjacent surfaces flair away from one another 2: in dentistry, the space defined by surfaces of two adjacent teeth; there are four embrasure spaces associated with each proximal contact area: occlusal/incisal, mesial, distal, and gingival

em·brittle : to make brittle or plastic

emergence angle : the angle of the dental implants’ transitional contour as determined by the relation of the surface of the abutment to the long axis of the implant body

emergence profile : the contour of a tooth or restoration, such as a crown on a natural tooth or dental implant abutment, as it relates to the adjacent tissues

EMG: acronym for ElectroMyoGram

em·i·nence : a prominence or projection, especially one on the surface of a bone

empty mouth movement : voluntary or reflex movements of the mandible when not engaged in incision or mastication

en·am·el : in dentistry, the hard, thin, translucent layer of calcified substance that envelopes and protects the dentin of the coronal aspect of the tooth; it is the hardest substance in the body—called also adamantine layer

enamel projection: an apical extension of enamel, usually toward a furcation in the roots

enamel projection : An apical extension of enamel, usually toward a furcation in the roots.

en·am·el·o·plas·ty n: see OCCLUSAL RESHAPING

en·ar·thro·sis : joints with a ball and socket arrangement (e.g., hip)


endodontic endosteal dental implant : a smooth and/or threaded pin implant that extends through the root canal of a tooth into periapical bone and is used to stabilize a mobile tooth, sometimes called an endodontic stabilizer

endodontic pin : a metal pin that is placed through the apex of a natural tooth into the bone to stabilize a mobile tooth (GPT-4)—see ENDODONTIC ENDOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT


en·dog·en·ous : developing or originating within the organism

en·do·scope : a flexible or rigid thin tube used for examining the interior of a structure

endosseous blade implant: see BLADE ENDOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT

endosseous implant: see ENDOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT

endosteal dental implant : a device placed into the alveolar and/or basal bone of the mandible or maxilla and transecting only one cortical plate. The endosteal dental implant is composed of an anchorage component, termed the endosteal dental implant, which, ideally, is within the bone, and a retentive component, termed the endosteal dental implant abutment. The dental implant abutment connects to the dental implant (by means of screws, thread/screw interfacing, compression/luting agent etc. that can be termed elements), passes through the oral mucosa, and serves to support and/or retain the prosthesis (fixed dental prosthesis, removable dental prosthesis, maxillofacial prosthesis). The dental implant abutment may be for interim or definitive application—usage: interim abutment, definitive abutment. Descriptions of the dental implant or/and the dental implant abutment that use silhouette or geometric forms, such as cylinder, conical, pre-angled, angled, blade, basket, or endodontic, may be used as adjectives to enhance understanding of the geometry of any endosteal dental implant. Also, descriptive adjectives may be used to delineate the materials from which they are made, i.e. a ceramic dental implant abutment. Interim or definitive dental implant abutments may be composed of one or more individual component parts, each of which is termed an element. The dental implant abutment element(s) usually is (are) described by means of their geometric form, function or means of adaptation, i.e., screw, coping, cylinder, lug, friction fitting, press-fit. Hence multiple adjectives may be used to describe both the endosteal dental implant and abutment.—see also BASKET E.D.I., BLADE E.D.I., DENTAL IMPLANT, ENDODONTIC E.D.I., EPOSTEAL D.I., SCREW E.D.I., TRANSOSTEAL D.I.

endosteal dental implant: that portion of the dental implant that provides the anchorage to the bone through the process of tissue integration

endosteal dental implant abutment : that portion of the dental implant which passes through the oral mucosa and provides connection between the endosteal dental implant body and the prosthesis

endosteal dental implant abutment element (s) : any component used to secure either the dental implant abutment to the dental implant or the prosthesis to the dental implant abutment

endosteal dental implant that portion of the dental implant that provides the anchorage to the bone through the process of tissue integration.

end-to-end bite: see EDGE TO EDGE ARTICULATION

end-to-end occlusion: see EDGE TO EDGE ARTICULATION

entrance port : the area of the surface of a patient or phantom on which a radiation beam is incident

envelope of function : the three-dimensional space contained within the envelope of motion that defines mandibular movement during masticatory function and/or phonation

envelope of motion : the three-dimensional space circumscribed by mandibular border movements within which all unstrained mandibular movement occurs

epithelial attachment: see JUNCTIONAL EPITHELIUM

epithelial cuff : a term used to describe the relationship between the mucosal and the dental implant. The use of this term implies a close adherence, but not necessarily a biochemical attachment, between the implant and mucosa

ep·i·the·li·um : the mucosal tissue serving as the lining of the intraoral surfaces. It extends into the gingival crevice and adheres to the tooth at the base of the crevice—see CREVICULAR E, JUNCTIONAL E.

ep·i·the·li·za·tion : the process of becoming covered with or converted to epithelium—ep·i·the·lize

eposteal dental implant: any dental implant that receives its primary support by means of resting upon the bone—usage: a subperiosteal dental implant that conforms to the superior surface of an edentulous area of alveolar bone is an eposteal dental implant. Any retaining screws or other elements that may secure the eposteal framework to the alveolar bone and pass through the bone represent endosteal dental implant components. Should the eposteal framework penetrate the alveolar bone, technically, the framework becomes an endosteal dental implantusage: an eposteal dental implants’ support system has, heretofore, been termed the implant frameimplant framework, or implant substructure; however, this is an integral component of that dental implants’ form and is not subservient to any other component —see ENDOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT, SUBPERIOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT, TRANSOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT

epoxy resin : a resin characterized by the reactive epoxy or ethyloxyline groups that possess unique characteristics in terms of adhesion to metals, woods, and glasses

epoxy resin die: a reproduction formed in epoxy resin

epulis fissuratum: overgrowth of intraoral tissue resulting from chronic irritation

equalization of pressure : the act of equalizing or evenly distributing pressure

equil·i·brate -brat·ed-brat·ing : to bring or to place in equilibrium

equil·i·bra·tion 1: the act or acts of placing a body in a state of equilibrium 2: the state or condition of being in equilibrium—usage: see MANDIBULAR E., OCCLUSAL E.

equil·i·bra·tor : an instrument or device used in achieving or helping maintain a state of equilibrium (GPT-4)

equi·lib·ri·um 1: a state of even adjustment between opposing forces 2: that state or condition of a body in which any forces acting on it are so arranged that their product at every point is zero 3: a balance between active forces and negative resistance

e·ro·sion 1: an eating away; a type of ulceration 2: in dentistry, the progressive loss of tooth substance by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action producing defects that are sharply defined, wedge-shaped depressions often in facial and cervical areas—compABFRACTION, ABRASION, ATTRITION

Essig splint: for a stainless steel wire passed labially and lingually around a segment of the dental arch and held in position by individual ligature wires around the contact areas of the teeth; it is used to stabilize fractured or repositioned teeth and the involved alveolar bone.

es·thet·ic 1: pertaining to the study of beauty and the sense of beautiful. Descriptive of a specific creation that results from such study; objectifies beauty and attractiveness, and elicits pleasure 2: pertaining to sensation var of AESTHETIC

esthetic reshaping : the physical modification of the surfaces of teeth to improve appearance

es·thet·ics 1: the branch of philosophy dealing with beauty 2: in dentistry, the theory and philosophy that deal with beauty and the beautiful, especially with respect to the appearance of a dental restoration, as achieved through its form and/or color. Those subjective and objective elements and principles underlying the beauty and attractiveness of an object, design or principle—see DENTAL E., DENTURE E.—aes·thet·i·cal·ly adj

Estlander’s operation : eponym for a lip switch operation. A triangular flap of tissue borrowed from the lower lip is transferred to the upper lateral lip

1etch la: to produce a retentive surface, especially on glass or metal, by the corrosive action of an acid lb: to subject to such etching 2: to delineate or impress clearly

2etch 1: the effect or action of an etching acid on a surface 2: a chemical agent used in etching

etch·ant : an agent that is capable of etching a surface

etch·ing 1: the act or process of selective dissolution 2: in dentistry, the selective dissolution of the surface of tooth enamel, metal, or porcelain through the use of acids or other agents (etchants) to create a retentive surface

ethylene oxide : a bactericidal agent occurring as a colorless gas with a pleasant ethereal odor; the chemical in gas sterilization systems used for many items that cannot be sterilized in a high heat system; used as a disinfectant, especially for disposable equipment

etiologic factors : the elements or influences that can be assigned as the cause or reason for a disease or lesion—see LOCAL E.F., SYSTEMIC E.F.

e·ti·ol·o·gy 1: the factors implicated in the cause or origin of a disease or disorder 2: the study or theory of the factors causing disease

e·vis·cer·a·tion : removal of the viscera or contents of a cavity. In ophthalmology, the removal of the contents of the eyeball, leaving the sclera

e·vul·sion: extraction; removed, usually of a sudden nature

ex·am·in·a·tion : scrutiny or investigation for the purpose of making a diagnosis or assessment

excoriate : to wear off the skin; to abrade

excoriation : a scratch or abrasion of the skin

ex·cur·sion 1: a movement outward and back or from a mean position or axis; also, the distance traversed 2: in dentistry, the movement occurring when the mandible moves away from maximum intercuspation

ex·cur·sive : constituting a digression; characterized by digression

excursive movement : movement occurring when the mandible moves away from maximum intercuspation

ex·en·ter·a·tion : removal of an organ. Used in connection with the eye, an orbital exenteration denotes the removal of the entire eye and surrounding structures

exercise prosthesis : a temporary, removable dental prosthesis, usually without teeth and always without occluding contact, used for the purpose of reconditioning the supporting structures (especially the residual ridge) by means of light, intermittent biting pressure applied against bilaterally interposed fingers

exostosis: bony projection extending beyond the normal contour of a bony surface

expansion prosthesis : a maxillofacial prosthesis used to expand the lateral segment of the maxilla in a unilateral or bilateral cleft of the soft and hard palates and alveolar processes

ex·po·sure 1: the act of laying open, as a surgical or dental exposure 2: in radiology, a measure of the roentgen rays or gamma radiation at a certain place based on its ability to cause ionization. The unit of exposure is the roentgen, called also exposure dose—see ROENTGEN RAY

ex·ten·sion 1: the movement by which the two elements of any jointed part are drawn away from each other, the process of increasing the angle between two skeletal levers having end-to-end articulation with each other. The opposite of flexion 2: in maxillofacial prosthetics, that portion of a prosthesis added to fill a defect or provide a function not inherent in a dental restoration, e.g., palatal extension, pharyngeal extension—see SECTION

extension base partial removable dental prosthesis : a removable dental prosthesis that is supported and retained by natural teeth only at one end of the denture base segment and in which a portion of the functional load is carried by the residual ridge


extension outline 1: the outline of the area of the entire basal seat of a denture 2: the outline on the surface of a cast or mucous membrane that includes the entire area to be covered by a denture (GPT-1)

external oblique ridge : a smooth ridge on the buccal surface of the body of the mandible that extends from the anterior border of the ramus, with diminishing prominence, downward and forward to the region of the mental foremen. This ridge changes very little in size and direction throughout life

ex·tir·pate .pat·edpat·ing 1. To pull up or out, to destroy completely. 2. To cut out by surgery. —ex·tir·pa·tion .

extracapsular ankylosis : ankylosis due to rigidity of any structure external to the joint capsule

extracapsular disorder : a problem associated with the masticatory system in which the etiological factors are located outside of the temporomandibular joint capsule

ex·tra·coro·nal : that which is outside or external to, the crown portion of a natural tooth; e.g., an extracoronal preparation, restoration, partial or complete crown

extracoronal attachment: any prefabricated attachment for support and retention of a removable dental prosthesis. The male and female components are positioned outside the normal contour of the abutment tooth—see INTRACORONAL ATTACHMENT, PRECISION ATTACHMENT

extracoronal retainer : that part of a fixed dental prosthesis uniting the abutment to the other elements of a prosthesis that surrounds all or part of the prepared crown

extraoral tracing : a tracing of mandibular movements made by means of devices that extend outside the oral cavity; a tracing made outside the oral cavity

ex·tra·ver·sion: see LABIOVERSION

ex·tir·pate vt -pat·ed-pat·ing (1539) 1: to pull up or out; to destroy completely 2: to cut out by surgery—ex·tir·pa·tion n

ex·trin·sic: external, extraneous, as originating from or on the outside—ex·trin·si·cal·ly adv

extrinsic coloring : coloring from without; applying color to the external surface of a prosthesis

ex·tru·sion : the movement of teeth beyond the natural occlusal plane that may be accompanied by a similar movement of their supporting tissues

ex·u·date : 1. exuded molten material 2. any fluid that gradually passing through tissues. Inflammatory exudate is a fluid with a high content of serum proteins and leukocytes, formed as a reaction to tissue injury.

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