Gpt Terms – G

gag 1: an involuntary contraction of the muscles of the soft palate or pharynx that results in retching 2: a surgical device for holding the mouth open

galvanic skin response : the change in the electrical resistance of the skin in response to diverse stimuli

galvanic stimulation : stimulation of muscles through the application of varying amplitudes and pulsations of electrical current; used in the treatment of muscle disorders

gal·van·ism : accelerated corrosion of a metal due to electrical contact with a more noble metal in a corrosive electrolyte. The resulting current flow can produce nerve stimulation, unpleasant tastes, and other physiological reactions commonly associated with this term

ga·vage : forced feeding especially through a tube passed into the stomach

generated occlusal path: see FUNCTIONALLY GENERATED PATH

ge·nial : pertaining to the chin

genial tubercles: mental spines; rounded elevations (usually two pairs) clustered around the midline on the lingual surface of the lower portion of the mandibular symphysis. These tubercles serve as attachments for the genioglossus and geniohyoid muscles

ge·nio·plasty 1: a surgical procedure performed to alter the contour of the mandibular symphysis 2: plastic surgery of the chin

geriatrics : the branch of medicine that treats all problems peculiar to the aging patient, including the clinical problems of senescence and senility—see DENTAL G., GERODONTICS, GERODONTOLOGY

gerodontics : the treatment of dental problems of aging persons; also spelled geriodontics

gerodontology : the study of the dentition and dental problems in aged or aging persons

Gillett bridge : eponym for a partial removable dental prosthesis utilizing a Gillett clasp system, which was composed of an occlusal rest notched deeply into the occlusal-axial surface with a gingivally placed groove and a circumferential clasp for retention. The occlusal rest was custom made in a cast restoration

gin·gi·va : the fibrous investing tissue, covered by epithelium, which immediately surrounds a tooth and is contiguous with its periodontal membrane and with the mucosal tissues of the mouth—see ATTACHED G., FREE G., MARGINAL G.

gingival crevice : a shallow fissure between the marginal gingiva and the enamel or cementum. It is bounded by the tooth surface on one side, the crevicular epithelium on the other, and the coronal end of the junctional epithelium at its most apical point—called alsogingival sulcus

gingival denture contour : the form of the denture base or other material around the cervical regions of prosthetic teeth

gingival displacement : the deflection of the marginal gingiva away from a tooth

gingival embrasure: the space between adjacent teeth that is cervical to the interproximal contact area

gingival porcelain: a porcelain blend used for the cervical portion of a ceramic restoration comp BODY PORCELAIN, INCISAL PORCELAIN

gingival retraction: see GINGIVAL DISPLACEMENT

ginglymoarthrodial joint: any joint, such as the temporomandibular joint, capable of both hinging and gliding articulation

ginglymus joint : a hinge joint

gin·gly·mus : a type of synovial joint which allows movement in one plane only (i.e., forward and backward), such as the hinge of a door; called also ginglymoid or hinge joint

ginglymus joint : a hinge joint

glare : the disturbance of the sensitivity of the eye, experienced when portions of the field of view have a brightness or intensity greatly in excess of that of the average for the field of view

glass-ceramic: a solid material, crystalline and partly glassy, formed by controlled crystallization of a glass

glass ionomer : a cement, luting or restorative agent composed of an acid-soluble glass, polyacrylic acid, and water that sets via an acid-base reaction

glaze; glazedglaz·ing 1: to cover with a glossy, smooth surface or coating 2: the attainment of a smooth and reflective surface 3: the final firing of porcelain in which the surface is vitrified and a high gloss is imparted to the material 4: a ceramic veneer on a dental porcelain restoration after it has been fired, producing a nonporous, glossy or semi-glossy surface—see NATURAL G., OVERGLAZE

glenoid fossa: the concavity in the temporal bone by the zygomatic arch that receives the mandibular condyle

gliding movement: see TRANSLATION

gliding occlusion : used in the sense of designating contacts of teeth in motion (GPT-4)—see ARTICULATION

glos·sal·gia : pain in the tongue

glos·so·py·nia : painful or burning tongue

glos·sec·to·my : partial or total resection of the tongue

glos·so·plas·ty : plastic surgery of the tongue

glos·so·py·ro·sis : a form of paresthesia characterized by pain, burning, itching, and stinging of the mucosa of the tongue, without noticeable lesions; called also burning tongue

gnath·ic : of or pertaining to the jaw or cheek

gnath·ion : the lowest bony point, in the median plane of the mandible

gnath·o·dy·na·mo·me·ter 1: an instrument for measuring the force exerted in closing the jaws 2: an instrument used for measuring biting pressure

gnath·ol·o·gy : the science that treats the biology of the masticatory mechanism as a whole: that is, the morphology, anatomy, histology, physiology, pathology, and the therapeutics of the jaws or masticatory system and the teeth as they relate to the health of the whole body, including applicable diagnostic, therapeutic, and rehabilitation procedures

Goddard’s linear occlusion (William H. Goddard, Louisville, Kentucky, U.S. dentist, 1808-1883): see LINEAR OCCLUSION

Golden Proportion: the ratio between succeeding terms in a mathematical progression (called the Fibonacci series [Leonardo Pisano:nickname Fibonacci, Italian Mathematician, c1170-c1240]) in which each number is the sum of the two immediately preceding it (i.e., 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, and so on). The ratio converges on approximately 1.618 to 1. Claims have been made that the Golden Proportion exists in natural dentitions in the ratio of the widths of incisors and canines as seen from the facial surfaces

gold foil 1: pure gold rolled into extremely thin sheets 2: a precious-metal foil used in restoration of carious or fractured teeth

gothic arch tracer : the device that produces a tracing that resembles an arrowhead or a gothic arch. The device is attached to the opposing arches. The shape of the tracing depends on the relative location of the marking point and the tracing table. The apex of a properly made tracing is considered to indicate the most retruded, unstrained relation of the mandible to the maxillae, i.e., centric relation (GPT-4)—see CENTRAL BEARING TRACING DEVICE

gothic arch tracing: see CENTRAL BEARING TRACING

graft \graft\ : a tissue or material used to repair a defect or deficiency—see ALLOGRAFT, ALLOPLASTIC G., AUTOGENOUS G., AUTOGRAFT, FULL THICKNESS G., HETEROGRAFT, HOMOGRAFT, ISOGRAFT, SPLIT-THICKNESS G., XENOGENIC G.

Grassman’s laws [author unknown]: eponym for three empirical laws that describe the color-matching properties of additive mixtures of color stimuli 1: to specify a color match, three independent variables are necessary and sufficient 2: for an additive mixture of color stimuli, only their tri-stimulus values are relevant, not their spectral compositions 3: in an additive mixture of color stimuli, if one or more components of the mixture are gradually changed, the resulting tri-stimulus values also change gradually. (Laws do not hold for all observing conditions)

GRAY : a unit of absorbed radiation dose equal to 100 RADS. Abbreviated Gy

greenstick fracture : a fracture in which the break in the bone is not complete. The bone appears to be bent on one side while the other side of the bone is broken

Griffith flaws: eponym—see MICROCRACK

grinding-in : a term used to denote the act of correcting occlusal disharmonies by grinding the natural or artificial teeth (GPT-1)—see OCCLUSAL RESHAPING

groove : a long narrow channel or depression, such as the indentation between tooth cusps or the retentive features placed on tooth surfaces to augment the retentive characteristics of crown preparations

group function : multiple contact relations between the maxillary and mandibular teeth in lateral movements on the working side whereby simultaneous contact of several teeth acts as a group to distribute occlusal forces

Guerin’s fracture [Alphonse Francois Marie Guerin, French surgeon, 1816-1895]: eponym—see LE FORT I FRACTURE

guid·ance 1: providing regulation or direction to movement; a guide 2: the influence on mandibular movements by the contacting surfaces of the maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth 3: mechanical forms on the lower anterior portion of an articulator that guide movements of its upper member—see ADJUSTABLE ANTERIOR G., ANTERIOR GUIDANCE, CONDYLAR G.

guide pin : the component of a dental implant system that is placed within the surgically prepared osseous site for an endosteal implant. It assists in determination of location and angulation of the site relative to other soft tissue or bony landmarks

guide plane 1: the plane developed in the occlusal surfaces of the occlusion rims (viz., to position the mandible in centric relation)2: a plane which guides movement (GPT-4)

guide table : the anterior element of an articulator on which the incisal pin rests. It may be custom contoured or mechanically adjusted—see ANTERIOR G.T.

guided tissue regeneration : any procedure that attempts to regenerate lost periodontal structures or alveolar process through differential tissue responses. Barrier techniques, using synthetic materials that may or may not resorb, to exclude epithelial ingrowth (periodontal regeneration) or connective tissue ingrowth (alveolar process regeneration) that is believed to interfere with regeneration

guiding occlusion : used in the sense of designating contacts of teeth in motion (GPT-4)

guiding planes : vertically parallel surfaces on abutment teeth or/and dental implant abutments oriented so as to contribute to the direction of the path of placement and removal of a removable dental prosthesis

guiding surfaces: see GUIDING PLANES

gum contour: form of supporting structures of the teeth or of the flanges of dentures around the teeth (GPT-1)

gums : the fibrous and mucosal covering of the alveolar process or ridge (GPT-4)—see GINGIVA

Gunning’s splint : eponym for a device fabricated from casts of edentulous maxillary and mandibular arches to aid in reduction and fixation of a fracture. His initial work described four types of splints used in treating jaw fractures (1866-67), which allowed openings for saliva flow, nourishment, and speech—called also occlusal splint

gus·ta·tion : the act of perceiving taste

gyp·sum : the natural hydrated form of calcium sulfonate, CaSO4 2H2O gypsum dihydrate

gypsum-bonded investment: any casting investment with gypsum as a binder, also containing cristobalite or quartz as a refractory material. The cristobalite and quartz are responsible for the thermal expansion of the mold during wax elimination. Because gypsum is not chemically stable at temperatures exceeding 650° C (1200° F), these investments are typically restricted to castings of conventional Type II, III, and IV gold alloys

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