GPT Terms – T

ta·ble: a flat surface; a raised horizontal surface—see GUIDE T., OCCLUSAL T.

ta·per: in dentistry, the convergence of two opposing external walls of a tooth preparation as viewed in a given plane. The extension of those average lines within that plane form an angle describe as the angle of convergence

tech·nic : a detailed procedure in the fabrication of a prosthesis—spelled also technique

tech·nique : a body of technical methods; a method of accomplishing a desired end; the method or procedure and its details

telescopic coping: see COPING

telescopic crown : an artificial crown constructed to fit over a coping (framework). The coping can be another crown, a bar or any other suitable rigid support for the dental prosthesis

telescopic denture: see OVERDENTURE

tem·plate 1: a pattern, mold, or gauge used as a guide to form a piece being made 2: a curved or flat surface pattern that is used as an aid in arranging teeth—see also SURGICAL TEMPLATE

temporary base: see RECORD BASE

temporary denture: see INTERIM PROSTHESIS

temporary prosthesis: see INTERIM PROSTHESIS

temporary restoration: see INTERIM PROSTHESIS

temporomandibular articulation: see TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT

temporomandibular disorders 1: conditions producing abnormal, incomplete, or impaired function of the temporomandibular joint(s) 2: (obs) a collection of symptoms frequently observed in various combinations first described by Costen (1934, 1937), which he claimed to be reflexes due to irritation of the auriculotemporal and/or chorda tympanic nerves as they emerged from the tympanic plate caused by altered anatomic relations and derangements of the temporomandibular joint associated with loss of occlusal vertical dimension, loss of posterior tooth support, and/or other malocclusions. The symptoms can include headache about the vertex and occiput, tinnitus, pain about the ear, impaired hearing and pain about the tongue—acronym TMD

temporomandibular dysfunction syndrome: see TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DISORDERS

temporomandibular joint 1: the articulation between the temporal bone and the mandible. It is a bilateral diarthrodial, bilateral ginglymoid joint 2: the articulation of the condylar process of the mandible and the intraarticular disk with the mandibular fossa of the squamous portion of the temporal bone; a diarthrodial, sliding hinge (ginglymus) joint. Movement in the upper joint compartment is mostly translational, whereas that in the lower joint compartment is mostly rotational. The joint connects the mandibular condyle to the articular fossa of the temporal bone with the temporomandibular disk interposed

temporomandibular joint derangement: see INTERNAL DERANGEMENT

temporomandibular joint hypermobility : excessive mobility of the temporomandibular joint

temporomandibular joint remodeling: see REMODEL

temporomandibular joint syndrome: see TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DISORDERS

TENS: acronym for Transcutaneous Electrical Neural Stimulation—see TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL NEURAL STIMULATION

tensile stress : the internal induced force that resists the elongation of a material in a direction parallel to the direction of the stresses

ten·sion : the state of being stretched, strained, or extended

terminal hinge axis: see TRANSVERSE HORIZONTAL AXIS

terminal hinge position: see RETRUDED CONTACT POSITION

terminal jaw relation record : a record of the relationship of the mandible to the maxillae made in the terminal hinge position

therapeutic prosthesis: see RADIATION CARRIER

thermal expansion : expansion of a material caused by heat

ther·mo·plas·tic : a characteristic or property of a material that allows it to be softened by the application of heat and return to the hardened state on cooling— ther·mo·plas·tic·i·ty n

thread 1: a filament, a group of filaments grouped together, or a filamentous length formed by spinning and twisting short fibers into a continuous strand 2: a projecting helical rib (as on a pipe) by which parts can be screwed together: a screw thread

thread crest: the top part of the thread; for external threads, the thread crest is the region of the thread which is on its outer surface, whereas forinternal threads it is the region which forms the inner diameter

thread flank: the thread flanks join the thread roots to the crest of a screw

thread root: the bottom of the thread where it meets the shaft of the screw

thread run out: that portion at the end of a threaded shank which is not cut or rolled to full depth, but which provides a transition between full depth threads and the fastener shank

threaded post: any post used for the restoration of endodontically treated teeth that has a screw thread to engage radicular dentin

three-quarter crown obs: see PARTIAL VENEER CROWN

tic : an intermittent, involuntary, spasmodic movement of a group of muscles, often without a demonstrable external stimulus

T.I.D.: acronym for L. Ter In Di’e, three times a day

tin·foil 1: paper thin metal sheeting usually of a tin-lead alloy or aluminum (a misnomer) 2: a base-metal foil used as a separating material between the cast and denture base material during flasking and polymerizing

tinners’ joint: an overlapping folded joint between two abutting sheets of metal of uneven length in which the longer portion is first folded over the shorter after which the combined layers are folded over once more resulting in a quadruple layer of material. Originally used by tinsmiths to join sheets of tin. In dentistry, used to secure a thin platinum matrix that is applied to a die of a prepared tooth to support dental porcelain during firing

tin·ni·tus : a noise in the ears, often described as ringing or roaring

tinted denture base : a denture base with coloring that simulates the color and shading of natural oral tissues

tis·sue 1: the various cellular combinations that make up the body 2: an aggregation of similarly specialized cells united in the performance of a particular function—see HYPERPLASTIC TISSUE

tissue-bearing area: see DENTURE FOUNDATION AREA

tissue displaceability 1: the quality of oral tissues that permits them to be placed in other than a relaxed position 2:the degree to which tissues permit displacement

tissue displacement : the change in the form or position of tissues as a result of pressure. Frequently used to describe gingival tissue placement prior to impression making.

tissue integration : as clinically observed, the apparent direct and healthy attachment of living tissue to an alloplastic material, i.e., a dental implant—see OSSEOUS INTEGRATION

tissue molding: see BORDER MOLDING

tissue reaction : the response of tissues to an altered condition

tissue registration obs 1: the accurate registration of the shape of tissues under any condition by means of a suitable material (GPT-1) 2: an impression (GPT-1)

tissue trimming: see BORDER MOLDING

TMD: acronym for TemporoMandibular Disorders—see TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DISORDERS

to·mo·gram : a radiograph made by using a tomograph

1to·mo·graph : a device for moving an x-ray source in one direction as the film moves in the opposite direction

2to·mo·graph : a radiograph produced from a machine that has the source of radiation moving in one direction and the film moving in the opposite direction

to·mo·gra·phy : a general term for a technique that provides a distinct image of any selected plane through the body, while the images of structures that lie above and below that plane are blurred. Also, the term body-section radiography has been applied to the procedure, although the several ways of accomplishing it have been given distinguishing names

tongue habit : conscious or unconscious movements of the tongue that are not related to purposeful functions. Such habits may produce malocclusion or injuries to tissues of the tongue or the attachment apparatus of the teeth

tongue thrusting : the infantile pattern of suckle-swallow in which the tongue is placed between the incisor teeth or alveolar ridges during the initial stages of deglutition, resulting sometimes in an anterior open occlusion, deformation of the jaws, and/or abnormal function

tooth; teeth : any hard calcified structure in the alveolar processes of the maxilla or mandible used for mastication of food, or a similar structure—see ANATOMIC T., CUSPLESS T., METAL INSERT T., NONANATOMIC T., REVERSE ARTICULATION T., TUBE T., ZERO-DEGREE T.

tooth arrangement 1: the placement of teeth on a denture with definite objectives in mind 2: the placement of teeth on trial bases—see ANTERIOR TOOTH ARRANGEMENT

tooth borne: see TOOTH SUPPORTED

tooth color selection : the determination of the color and other attributes of appearance of an artificial tooth or set of teeth for a given individual

tooth form : the characteristics of the curves, lines, angles, and contours of various teeth that permit their identification and differentiation—see ANTERIOR T.F., POSTERIOR T.F.

tooth placement: see TOOTH ARRANGEMENT

tooth preparation: 1. the process of removal of diseased and/or healthy enamel and dentin and cementum to shape a tooth to receive a restoration. 2. the resulting prepared tooth

tooth selection : the selection of a tooth or teeth of a shape, size, and color to harmonize with the individual characteristics of a patient

tooth size discrepancy : abnormally sized teeth or groups of teeth

tooth supported : a term used to describe a dental prosthesis or part of a prosthesis that depends entirely on the natural teeth for support

tooth-supported base : a dental prosthesis base that restores an edentulous region that has abutment teeth at each end for support. The tissue that it covers is not used for support

tooth-supported denture: see OVERDENTURE

tor·que : a twisting or rotary force. The movement of a system of forces producing rotation

tor·ustori : 1: a smooth rounded anatomical protuberance 2. in dentistry, prominence (s) sometimes seen on the lingual surface of the mandible and the midline of the hard palate

total elasticity of muscle : the combined effect of physical and physiologic elasticity of muscle (GPT-4)

tough·ness : the ability of a material to withstand stresses and strains without breaking

toxic dose : the amount of a drug that causes untoward symptoms in most persons

tox·ic·i·ty : the adverse reactions (dose-response-time relationships) of tissues to selected foreign substances resulting in unacceptable in-vivo interactions. The toxicity can be at the local or systemic level depending on the amount, rate of release, and specific type of substance available to the tissues

trac·er n (ca. 1552): see ARROW-POINT T.

trac·ing 1: a line or lines scribed by a pointed instrument 2: a traced copy of a drawing, photograph, radiograph, or similar entity—see ARROW POINT T., CEPHALOMETRIC T. EXTRAORAL T., INTRAORAL T., MANDIBULAR T., PAN


tracing device : a device that provides a central point of bearing, or support, between maxillary and mandibular occlusion rims or dentures. It consists of a contacting point that is attached to one occlusion rim or denture and a plate attached to the opposing occlusion rim or denture that provides the surface on which the bearing point rests or moves

transcranial oblique radiograph : a flat radiographic projection in which the central beam travels across the cranium and through the temporomandibular joint on the opposite side showing an oblique lateral view of the condyle

transcutaneous electrical neural stimulation : application of low-voltage electrical stimulation through the skin to nerves in order to interfere with the sensation of pain in the brain and increase blood flow to the region—colloquialTENS

trans·epi·the·li·al : penetrating or passing through the epithelium, as in a dental implant

transepithelial abutment : the dental implant abutment that passes through the epithelium and attaches to the dental prosthesis—called also the dental implant abutment

transfer coping : a metallic, acrylic resin, or other covering or cap used to position a die in an impression

transit dose : a measure of the primary radiation transmitted through the patient and measured at a point on the central ray at some point beyond the patient

transitional contour : with respect to any restoration supported by a dental implant, the external form achieved between the abutment and the implant body

transitional denture : a removable dental prosthesis serving as an interim prosthesis to which artificial teeth will be added as natural teeth are lost and that will be replaced after postextraction tissue changes have occurred. A transitional denture may become an interim complete dental prosthesis when all of the natural teeth have been removed from the dental arch—called also complete denture


translating condyle: see NONWORKING SIDE CONDYLE

trans·la·tion : that motion of a rigid body in which a straight line passing through any two points always remains parallel to its initial position. The motion may be described as a sliding or gliding motion

translatory movement : the motion of a body at any instant when all points within the body are moving at the same velocity and in the same direction (GPT-1)

trans·luc·en·cy : having the appearance between complete opacity and complete transparency; partially opaque

trans·mu·co·sal : passing through the gingiva or oral mucosa

trans·os·teal : the penetration of both the internal and external cortical plates of a bone

transosteal dental implant 1: a dental implant that penetrates both cortical plates and passes through the full thickness of the alveolar bone 2: a dental implant composed of a metal plate with retentive pins to hold it against the inferior border of the mandible that supports transosteal pins that penetrate through the full thickness of the mandible and pass into the mouth in the parasymphyseal region—called also staple bone implantmandibular staple implanttransmandibular implant


transverse facial fracture: see LE FORTE III FRACTURE, MIDFACIAL FRACTURE

transverse horizontal axis : an imaginary line around which the mandible may rotate within the sagittal plane

trans·ver·sion : displacement of a tooth from its usual position or proper numerical position in the jaw

trau·ma ; trau·ma·ta otrau·mas,  trau·mat·ic — trau·mat·i·cal·ly: an injury or wound, whether physical or psychic

trauma from occlusion: see OCCLUSAL TRAUMA

traumatic occlusion: see OCCLUSAL TRAUMA

trau·ma·to·gen·ic : capable of producing a wound or injury

traumatogenic occlusion : an occluding of the teeth that is capable of producing injury to oral structures (GPT-4)

traveling condyle: see NONWORKING SIDE CONDYLE

treatment denture 1: a dental prosthesis used for the purpose of treating or conditioning the tissues that is called on to support and retain it 2: a dental prosthesis that is placed in preparation for future therapy—see INTERIM PROSTHESIS

treatment plan : the sequence of procedures planned for the treatment of a patient after diagnosis

tre·phine n: a hollow rotary instrument (resembling a hole saw) used to make circular cuts. Used in dentistry to create a trough around pins or posts in a natural tooth prior to their removal or for removal of a dental implant from bone

trial base : a material or device representing the base of a removable dental prosthesis. It is used for making maxillomandibular relationship records and for the arrangement of teeth

trial denture : a preliminary arrangement of denture teeth that has been prepared for placement into the patient’s mouth to evaluate esthetics and maxillomandibular relationships

trial fitting: see TRIAL PLACEMENT

trial flask closure : any preliminary closure made for the purpose of eliminating excess material and insuring that the mold is completely filled

trial placement : the process of placing a trial denture in the patient’s mouth for evaluation—see TRIAL DENTURE

trial plate obs: see TRIAL DENTURE

tricalcium phosphate : an inorganic particulate or solid form of relatively biodegradable ceramic that is used as a scaffold for bone regeneration. It may be used as a matrix for new bone growth

trichromatic system : a system for specifying color stimuli in terms of the tri-stimulus value based on matching colors by additive mixtures of three primary colored lights

tri·chro·ma·tism : a type of vision in which the colors seen require, in general, three independently adjustable primaries (such as red, green, and blue) for their duplication by mixture; trichromatism may be either anomalous trichromatism or normal vision

trigger area: see TRIGGER POINT

trigger point : a focus of hyperirritability in tissue which when palpated, is locally tender and gives rise to heterotopic pain

trigger spot: see TRIGGER POINT

trigger zone: see TRIGGER POINT

tripod marking : those marks or lines drawn on a cast in a single plane perpendicular to the survey rod to assist with repositioning the cast on a dental surveyor in a previously defined orientation

tri·pod·i·za·tion : an occlusal scheme characterized by a cusp to fossa relationship in which there are three points of contact about the cusp and opposing fossa with no contact on the cusp tip

tris·mus n (ca. 1693): see MANDIBULAR T.

trismus appliance : a ancillary prosthesis that assists the patient in increasing the oral aperture width to eat and maintain oral hygiene—syn DYNAMIC BITE OPENER, INTERARCH EXPANSION DEVICE, OCCLUSAL DEVICE FOR MANDIBULAR TRISMUS

tri-stimulus value : (R, G, B: X, Y, Z, etc.) amounts of the three reference color stimuli, in a given trichromatic system, required to match the color of the stimulus considered

tri·ta·no·pia : form of dichromatism in which reddish blue and greenish yellow stimuli are confused. Tritanopia is a common result of retinal disease but may be inherited—called also blue blindnesshence tritanope


tube impression 1: a cylinder used as a tray to confine and direct impression material to make an impression of a single tooth 2: the impression resulting from this procedure

tube teeth : artificial teeth with an internal, vertical, cylindrical aperture extending from the center of the base upward into the body of the tooth, into which a pin may be placed or cast for the attachment of the tooth to a fixed or removable denture base

tu·ber·cule : a small bony prominence or excrescence; a nodule

tu·ber·os·i·ty nplties (ca. 1611): see MAXILLARY T.

tunnel dissection : a dissection of the periosteum from bone through a small incision, in a tunnel-like fashion

tur·gid: being on a state of distention; swollen

ty·po·dont : a replica of the natural dentition and alveolar mucosa, set to average condylar motions, used in training students in dental care —syn TYPODENT

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