Extraction of teeth is what everyone associated Dentistry with, as that has been what everyone has known from a long time. Dentistry in General has come a long way and there are other ways to save a tooth now than there were a decade ago. But in some of the worst cases where the teeth have to be extracted, we use certain set of instruments such as Elevators and Extraction Forceps to Extract teeth. For ease of use and to provide proper grip and transfer of forces to the tooth, each tooth or set of teeth have specially designed Forceps. The Forceps are divided in general into Maxillary and Mandibular Forceps depending on the Jaw they are used in and then they are sub divided into the teeth they are used on – Anterior Forceps, Molar Forceps, Pre-Molar Forceps, Third Molar forceps etc.
Further these Forceps are divided based on their Shape (Cow Horn forceps) or mode of use (Physics Forceps). Each Forceps has three parts – Handle, Hinge and Beak
So let us look at the various types of Forceps which are used in Extraction of Mandibular teeth.
Mandibular Anterior Forceps:
The Handle is at a right angle to the beak of the Forceps
The beaks are narrower at the tip of the beak
The tip of the beaks meets each other without having any space or gap between them
The tip is different when compared to the Pre-Molar forceps in just the size of the beak and that the tip of the beaks does not meet in the Pre-Molar Forceps. This is because of the Bucco Lingual width of the teeth, wider in Pre-Molar and smaller in Anterior.
Due to its shape, these can also be used as Lower Root Forceps
Mandibular Premolar Forceps:
These are similar in shape to the lower Anterior forceps but differ in size of the Beak
The beak in the Premolar forceps is wider and also has spacing between the tip of the beak to accommodate the wider Premolar
This forceps can be used to extract the Canine as well due to its similar size and shape to the premolars
Mandibular Molar Forceps:
The beak is at a right angle to the Handle of the Forceps
The tip of the beak is much wider than the premolar forceps and it has a groove or extension which is used to engage the furcation of the lower molar
The tips of the beaks engage into the furcation’s on the Buccal and Lingual sides of the Molars giving us proper grip to exert the required forces to Luxate and Extract the tooth out of the socket
Mandibular Cowhorn Forceps:
These are Forceps used to Extract Mandibular Molar teeth as well but the beaks of the instrument are designed in the shape of cow horns. This shape helps in engaging the beaks of instrument into the furcation area, on exerting force on the handle the cowhorn elevates the tooth out of the socket. This helps in Elevating the tooth out of the socket without much use of buccal and lingual movements, thus preserving the buccal or palatal plates.
Third Molar Forceps:
These are Mandibular forceps which are designed differently in comparison to the other mandibular forceps, the beak of the instrument is aligned differently. This allows us access to difficult to reach areas such as the Third molar region, the point of insertion or how we engage the tooth is different. With this we can engage and access difficult to reach spaces and apply the required forces and extract the Mandibular Molars.
Forceps are a part of the armamentarium of Exodontia or Oral Surgery, it alternates with Elevators in luxating the tooth and extracting the tooth from the socket.