Oral Manifestations of AIDS or Hiv

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Human Immunodeficiency Virus has some major Oral Manifestations which are very important in its Diagnosis. We all know that HIV remains silent without any Signs or Symptoms except persistent Generalized Lymphadenopathy, which is present for longer than 3 months time and involves 2 or more extra lingual sites. Most frequently involved sites of Adenopathy in HIV/AIDS patients are Anterior Cervical, Submandibular, Occipital and Axillary Nodes. Nodal Enlargement fluctuates usually larger than 1 cm and varies from 0.5 to 5.0 cms in size.

Progressive Generalized Lymphadenopathy does not show the progression of HIV or AIDS. Oral manifestations play an important role in the diagnosis of HIV.

Oral Manifestations of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Human Immunodeficiency Virus:

We are going to divide the oral manifestations depending on their Origin and further divide them based on their occurrence into Common and Less Common Manifestations.

Fungal Infection in HIV:

Common Fungal Manifestations:

  • Candidiasis
  • HIV- related Gingivitis

Less Common Fungal Manifestations:

  • Aspergillosis
  • Histoplasmosis
  • Cryptococcosis
  • Geotrichosis

Bacterial Infection in HIV:

Common Bacterial Manifestations:

  • HIV associated periodontitis
  • Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis

Less Common Bacterial Manifestations:

  • Mycobacterium Avium-intracellulare
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae
  • Enterobacter Cloacae
  • Escherichia Coli
  • Salmonella Enteritidis
  • Cat-Scratch Disease
  • Sinusitis
  • Exacerbation of periapical inflammatory disease
  • Submandibular cellulitis

Viral Infections in HIV:

Common Viral Manifestations of HIV:

  • HSV
  • VZV
  • EBV

Less Common Viral Manifestations of HIV:

  • HPV
  • CMZ

Neoplasms in HIV Infection:

Common Neoplasms of HIV:

  • Kaposis Sarcoma

Less Common Neoplasms of HIV:

  • Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma


  • Cervical Lymphadenopathy


  • Trigeminal Neuropathy
  • Facial Palsy


  • Apthous Ulcerations
  • Necrotizing Stomatitis
  • Toxic Epidermolysis
  • Delayed Wound healing
  • Thrombocytopenia
  • Xerostomia or Siccalika Syndrome
  • HIV related Embryopathy
  • Hyperpigmentation
  • Granuloma Annulare
  • Exfoliative Chelitis
  • Lichenoid Reactions
One Response
  1. October 5, 2013

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