Xerostomia, more commonly known as dry mouth, is not a disease in itself. Rather, it is a symptom of many other diseases and conditions. These conditions cause saliva production to decrease or stop. Saliva moistens your mouth and helps you to swallow and taste food. It also is a natural cavity fighter. For example, it washes away food and plaque from the teeth. It helps to neutralize acids in the mouth that harm tooth enamel.
If you have less saliva in your mouth, your teeth and gums are at increased risk of tooth decay. People with xerostomia also are more likely to get illnesses that affect the soft tissues of the mouth, such as yeast infections (thrush). In addition, your diet may be affected because you cannot taste food as you normally would.
Causes of Xerostomia include:
- A side effect of medicine — Hundreds of drugs can cause dry mouth. These include pain relievers and medicines for depression, cold symptoms and allergies. Medicines are the most common cause of xerostomia. Older people often take many medicines, including those most likely to cause dry mouth. For this reason, they have an especially high rate of dry mouth. Some of the drugs which cause dry mouth are Tricyclic antidepressants, antihistamines, anti hypertensives, anti depressants, bronchodialtors and Diuretics.
- A complication of diseases and infections — Several diseases are associated with dry mouth. They include diabetes, anemia, cystic fibrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, high blood pressure, Polyurea and HIV infection. Xerostomia also occurs with Sjogren’s syndrome. In this disease, the body’s antibodies attack the salivary and tear glands. Some viral infections, such as mumps, also affect saliva production and cause xerostomia.
- Dehydration — Any condition that leads to loss of body fluids can also cause xerostomia. These conditions include fever, excessive sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, blood loss or loss of water through the skin after a burn.
- Radiation therapy — Xerostomia is a common side effect of radiation therapy to treat cancers in the head, neck, adn thyroid cancers.
- Sjogrens syndrome.
- Poorly controlled Diabetes
- Bone marrow transplantation
- Thyroid Diorders
- Surgical removal of the salivary glands — If a mass develops in a salivary gland, surgical removal of the gland may be recommended.
- Psychological cases like anxiety and depression
- Duct Calculi
- Sialadenitis or inflamation of salivary glands
- Smoking controlling drug – Zuban
- Ectodermal Dysplasia
- Salivary gland Aplasia
Although xerostomia is a symptom, it often occurs along with other symptoms. These may include:
- Frequent thirst
- Burning or tingling sensation, especially on the tongue
- Red, raw tongue
- Sores in mouth or at corners of lips
- Difficulty swallowing
- Problems with taste
- Sore throat and hoarseness
- Bad Breath
- Problems with speech
- Difficulty in swallowing
- Dry nasal passages
- Dry, cracked lips
- Increase in dental problems, such as caries.
- Difficulty wearing dentures
- Repeated yeast infections in the mouth
- Risk of caries
- Risk of Periodontal diseases
Diagnosis for Xerostomia:
Xerostomia is a symptom, not a disease. Tell your dentist and hygienist about your dry mouth. Your dentist will ask you about your medical history and your symptoms. And the dentist will ask about any drugs you are taking. This includes prescription. The dentist also will examine your mouth. He or she will assess the flow of saliva and look for cracks, sores, and signs of cavities and gum disease.
As i always say that,
“Prevention is better than cure”
To prevent dry mouth, avoid things that cause it, if possible. For example, if dry mouth is related to a medicine, your physician may be able to prescribe a drug that causes less dryness. You also can take steps to prevent or manage the symptoms of dry mouth.
Treatment for Xerostomia:
The treatment of xerostomia focuses on three areas:
- Relieving symptoms
- Preventing tooth decay
- Increasing the flow of saliva, if possible
Your doctor will recommend that you practice good dental hygiene. This means that you should brush and floss properly. You also should have regular dental visits. In the office, your dentist or hygienist also will regularly apply flouride to your teeth. Your physician may work with your dentist to manage your condition.
Treatment is based on how severe your problem is and what caused it. Fluoride treatments can be prescribed to help prevent cavities. Artificial saliva is available over the counter as a rinse, spray or gel. Depending on your medical condition and diagnosis, a doctor may prescribe a drug that causes more saliva to be released.
Here are some simple tips which might help you, try the following:
- Drink water often to keep your mouth moist. Carry water with you. Sip it throughout the day. Keep water by your bed at night.
- Suck on sugar-free hard candies, ice chips or sugar-free ice pops. Some doctors believe sugary candies are as likely as dry mouth to cause cavities.
- If you chew gum, try sugarless gum.
- Use an over-the-counter oral moisturizer or saliva substitute.
- Use mouth rinses or mouthwashes that do not contain alcohol.
- Avoid salty foods, dry foods (crackers, cookies, toast) and foods and beverages with high sugar contents.
- Avoid drinks containing alcohol or caffeine. These increase water loss by triggering frequent urination.
- Avoid smoking.
- To minimize irritation of dry tissues, use a moisturizer on your lips and a soft-bristle toothbrush on your teeth and gums.
Artificial Saliva Sprays–
- Biotene Oralbalance Gel ad Xerotin Oral Spray
- BioXtra gel, Glandosane aerosol spray and Saliveze oral Spray – Artificial saliva preparations preferred in dry mouth caused due to radiotherapy or sicca syndrome.
- Saliva Orthana Spray
Salivary Stimulants for Dry Mouth or Xerostomia:
- SST tablets used in salivary gland impairment and salivary duct blockage patients
- Salivix pastilles stimulate saliva production in patients who have undergone Radiotherapy
- Simple Sugar Free Chewing Gums can also be used to stimulate saliva production