Use of Medications or Dental Drugs during Pregnancy is very complicated as both the mother and fetus are to be considered. In Dentistry the most commonly used Drugs are Analgesics, Antibiotics, Local Anesthetics and Sedatives, Antiprotozoal, Antifungal, Corticosteroids, Antacids, Antihistamines and Anti Allergens. It is important for every Dentist to keep in mind all the medications which are safe and which can cause damage to the fetus or the mother at all times.
Analgesics during Pregnancy:
- Acetaminophen and Morphine – Can be used
- Oxycodone, Hydrocodone, Pentazocine – Use with caution as Opoid drugs can lead to neonatal respiratory depression and stopping medication.
- Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Naproxen – Should be avoided in 3rd Trimester as Asprin causes post partum hemorrhage and Ibuprofen is known to cause complications during pregnancy.
Antibiotics during Pregnancy:
- Pencillins – Amoxicillin, Cephalosporin, Metronidazole, Clindamycin – Are Safe and can be used
- Tetracyclines, Erythromycin, chloramphenicol – No should not be used. Erythromycin is known to cause cholestatic hepatitis and others are known to inhibit growth of bone in the fetus
Local Anesthesia during Pregnancy:
- Lidocaine (with or without Epinephrine), Etidocaine, Prilocaine – Can be used during pregnancy
- Bupivacaine, Mepivacaine – Should not be used as they may cause Bradycardia
Sedatives During Pregnancy:
- Nitrous Oxide: Should not be used in 1st Trimester as it leads to Spontaneous abortion in 1st trimester. In 2nd and 3rd Trimester 50% of Nitrous Oxide can be used.
- Barbiturates and Benzodiazepines: Should not be used as prolonged exposure of Benzodiazepines can lead to oral clefts
Topical Fluoride application and used of Fluoride tablets is safe after 2nd Trimester
Corticosteroids during Pregnancy:
- Prednisolone can be used in pregnancy
Antifungal drugs during Pregnancy:
- Clotrimazole and Nystatin: Can be used
- Ketoconazole and Fluconazole: Should not be used
Antacids use in Pregnancy:
- Omeprazole, Ranitidine, famotidine, Antacids and mucosa protectives: Can be used
- Esomeprazole, Pantoprazole: Should not be used as it has not been tested properly
- Misoprostol: Should not be used as they are known to cause spontaneous abortion
Antihistamines / Anti allergy drugs during Pregnancy:
- Cetrizine, Chlorpheniramine, Loratidine: Can be used in Pregnancy
- Hydrozine, premethazine, fexofenadine: Should not be used in pregnancy
If in any doubt or the Pregnant patient is having any complications, it is better that you consult the Gynecologists before any treatment or Medication.