GPT Terms – F

fab·ri·ca·tion : the building, making, or constructing of a restoration

face form 1: the outline form of the face 2: the outline form of the face from an anterior view, sometimes described geometrically as square, tapering, ovoid, or by various combinations of these basic forms (GPT-4)—see FACIAL FORM

facebow : a caliper-like instrument used to record the spatial relationship of the maxillary arch to some anatomic reference point or points and then transfer this relationship to an articulator; it orients the dental cast in the same relationship to the opening axis of the articulator. Customarily the anatomic references are the mandibular condyles transverse horizontal axis and one other selected anterior point; called also hinge bow—see EARBOW, KINEMATIC F.

facebow fork : that component of the facebow used to attach the occlusion rim to the facebow

facebow record : the registration obtained by means of a facebow

facebow transfer: the process of transferring the facebow record of the spatial relationship of the maxillary arch to some anatomic reference point or points and transferring this relationship to an articulator

fac·et : a small, planar surface on any hard body—see WEAR FACET—usage: the French spelling of facet, facette, has continued to confuse the profession regarding pronunciation

facial : the surface of a tooth or other oral structure approximating the face (including both the lips and cheeks)

facial augmentation implant prosthesis 1: a maxillofacial prosthesis made of implantable biocompatible material generally onlayed upon an existing bony area beneath the skin tissue to fill in or selectively raise portions of the overlaying facial skin tissues to create acceptable contours. Although some forms of pre made surgical implants are commercially available, the facial augmentation implant prosthesis is usually custom made for surgical implantation for each individual patient due to the irregular or extensive nature of the facial deficit 2: an implantable biocompatible material generally laid upon an existing bony area beneath the skin tissues to fill in or selectively raise portions of the overlaying facial skin tissues to create acceptable contours (GPT7)—called also facial implant

facial form: the outline form of the face from an anterior view

facial moulage : a negative reproduction (impression) of the face that records soft tissue and bony contours of the face. It is used for diagnostic purposes or to create a prosthesis or implant—see COMPLETE F.M., MOULAGE, SECTIONAL F.M.

facial profile : the outline form of the face from a lateral view

facial prosthesis : a maxillofacial prosthesis that artificially replaces a portion of the face lost due to surgery, trauma, or congenital absence—called also extraoral prosthesis, prosthetic dressing

facial prosthetic adhesive : a material used to adhere a facial prosthesis to the skin

fac·ing : a veneer of any restorative material used on a natural tooth or prosthesis as a restoration to simulate a natural tooth

failure : in dental materials, fracture of any physical material due to cyclic loading and unloading characterized by fracture below its ultimate tensile strength

Farrar appliance [William B. Farrar, Alabama, U.S. dentist]: a type of occlusal device used to position the mandible anteriorly; used in the treatment of some types of temporomandibular joint disk disorders

Farrar WB. A clinical outline of temporomandibular joint diagnosis and treatment. 7th ed. Montgomery: Walker Printing Co., 1983.

Farrar device: C. L. Goddard includes descriptions and illustrations of several devices used to retract teeth and “ … for many other purposes” that are attributed to J. N. Farrar, DDS. Farrar also is credited with various “push- and pull-jacks” for tooth movement, and “appliances” for moving roots forward and backward

fa·tigue : the breaking or fracturing of a material caused by repeated cyclic or applied loads below the yield limit; usually viewed initially as minute cracks followed by tearing and rupture; also termed brittle failure or fracture <metal ?>—see FAILURE

feeding aid : an ancillary prosthesis that closes the oral-nasal cavity defect, thus enhancing sucking and swallowing, and maintains the right and left maxillary segments of infants with cleft palates in their proper orientation until surgery is performed to repair the cleft—called alsofeeding appliancefeeding prosthesis

feeding appliance obs: see FEEDING AID

feeding prosthesis : a ancillary prosthesis constructed for newborns with cleft palates to permit normal sucking and feeding—see FEEDING AID

feld·spar 1: any one of a group of minerals, principally aluminosilicate of sodium, potassium, calcium, or barium, that are essential constituents of nearly all crystalline rocks 2: a crystalline mineral of aluminum silicate with sodium, potassium, barium, and/or calcium; a major constituent of some dental porcelains

feld·spath·ic : related to or containing feldspar; used especially with reference to porcelain glaze

feldspathic porcelain: porcelain fabricated from the natural mineral group feldspar. The material is composed of compounds of oxygen with lighter metals and nonmetals and is predominantly an amorphous (non-crystalline) matrix with one or more crystalline phases (such as leucite K2O·Al2O3·4SiO2)

fer·rule l: a metal band or ring used to fit the root or crown of a tooth 2: any short tube or bushing for making a tight joint

1fes·toon 1: any decorative chain or strip hanging between two points 2: in dentistry, carvings in the base material of a denture that simulate the contours of the natural tissues that are being replaced by the denture

2fes·toon : to shape into festoons

FGP: acronym for Functionally Generated Path

fi·bro·in·te·gra·tion : see FIBROUS INTEGRATION

fibroosseous integration: see FIBROUS INTEGRATION

fi·bro·sis : the formation of fibrous tissue; fibroid or fibrous degeneration

fi·brous : composed of or containing fibers

fibrous adhesion : a fibrous band or structure by which parts abnormally adhere

fibrous ankylosis : reduced mobility of a joint due to proliferation of fibrous tissue

fibrous integration : the presence of a layer of intervening fibrous connective tissue between a dental implant and the adjacent bone indicative of failed osseointegration

field 1: an area or open space, as an operative field or visual field 2: a range of specialization or knowledge, study, or occupation

fil·ter : in radiology, a solid screen insert, usually of varying thicknesses and different metals (aluminum, copper, tin) placed to filter out photons of longer wavelengths

final flask closure : the last closure of a dental flask before polymerizing, after trial packing of the mold with a restorative material

final impression : the impression that represents the completion of the registration of the surface or object

fine 1: free from impurities 2: of a metal: having a stated proportion of pure metal in its composition, expressed in parts per thousand>a gold coin 0.9265

fine·ness : the proportion of pure gold in a gold alloy; the parts per 1000 of gold

finish : to put a final coat or surface on; the refinement of form prior to polishing

finish junction: the path of union of a dental restoration with the tooth

finish line 1: a line of demarcation determined by two points 2 (obs) the peripheral extension of a tooth preparation 3: the planned junction of different materials 4: (obs) the terminal portion of the prepared tooth

fir·ing: the process of porcelain fusion, in dentistry, specifically to produce porcelain restorations

first stage dental implant surgery : the initial surgical procedure in dental implant placement. For eposteal dental implants, this refers to the reflection of the oral mucosa, the impression made of the surgically exposed bone and usually an interocclusal record made to fabricate the implant body followed by surgical closure. For an endosteal implant, this refers to the reflection of the oral mucosa and investing tissues, preparation of the implantation site (i.e., removal of alveolar bone and, occasionally, tapping), placement of the dental implant body, and surgical closure of the overlying investing soft tissues—comp SECOND STAGE DENTAL IMPLANT SURGERY

Fischer’s angle [Rudolf Fischer, Swiss dentist, Zurich, Switzerland]: eponym for the angle formed by the intersection of the protrusive and nonworking side condylar paths as viewed in the sagittal plane

fis·sure : any cleft or grove, normally present or otherwise; a cleft or deep ditch in the surface of a tooth, usually due to imperfect fusion of adjoining enamel lobes. Distinguished from a groove or sulcus—called also enamel fissure

fissured fracture : a fracture that extends partially through a bone with displacement of the bony fragments

fistula,las ,lea: a pathologic or abnormal passage resulting from incomplete healing; a communication between two internal organs or one that leads from an internal organ to the surface of a body; usually designated according to the parts it communicates with, as oral-nasal f.

fitfit·ted, fitfit·ting 1: to be suitable or to be in harmony with 2a: to conform correctly to the shape or size of 2b: to insert or adjust until correctly in place; to make or adjust to the correct size or shape, i.e., to adapt one structure to another, as the adaptation of any dental restoration to its site, in the mouth

fix : to make firm, stable, or stationery, to attach to another object so that separation of the parts cannot be accomplished without breaking of the mechanical and/or chemical bonds that hold the parts in spatial relationship with each other

fixed : securely placed or fastened; stationary; not subject to change; immobile


fixed movable bridge: a fixed partial denture having one or more nonrigid connectors

fixed partial denture : see FIXED DENTAL PROSTHESIS

fixed dental prosthesis retainer : the part of a fixed dental prosthesis that unites the abutment(s) to the remainder of the restoration

fixed dental prosthesis : any dental prosthesis that is luted, screwed or mechanically attached or otherwise securely retained to natural teeth, tooth roots, and/or dental implant abutments that furnish the primary support for the dental prosthesis. This may include replacement of one to sixteen teeth in each dental arch. If a metallic or ceramic component is included within the fixed dental prosthesis, that component is termed the framework. Ed note: Dental prostheses (fixed dental prostheses, removable dental prostheses) as well as maxillofacial prostheses can be supported and retained in part or whole by dental implants. Terminology to assist in describing the means of retention, support and dental materials should be limited to concatenation of three and no more than four adjectives to provide clarity. Descriptive terminology (modifiers) expressed as adjectives to each fixed dental prosthesis may include such items as the method of retention, composition, nature of support, design characteristics, and/or form of anchorage

fixed prosthodontics : the branch of prosthodontics concerned with the replacement and/or restoration of teeth by artificial substitutes that not readily removed from the mouth

1fix·ture: something that is fixed or attached, as a structural part or a permanent appendage

2fix·ture: an endosteal dental implant—see ENDOSTEAL DENTAL IMPLANT, DENTAL IMPLANT

fixture cover : the component placed over a dental implant during the healing phase to prevent tissue from proliferating into the internal portion of the implant body—see COVER SCREW

flabby tissue : excessive movable tissue (GPT-4)

1flange : a rib or rim used for strength, for guiding or attachment of another object—see BUCCAL F., DENTURE F., LABIAL F.

2flange flang·ed flang·ing : to furnish with a flange

flange contour : the design of the flange of a denture (GPT-4)

1flask : a metal case or tube used in investing procedures—see CASTING F., CROWN F.

2flask : to flask or surround; to invest

flask closure : the procedure of bringing two halves, or parts, of a flask together—see FINAL F.C., TRIAL F.C.

flask·ing 1: the act of investing in a flask 2: the process of investing the cast and a wax replica of the desired form in a flask preparatory to molding the restorative material into the desired product


flowing composite resin : composite resin that is less highly filled than conventional composite resin and has improved wettability

flu·o·res·cence : a process by which a material absorbs radiant energy and emits it in the form of radiant energy of a different wavelength band, all or most of whose wavelengths exceed that of the absorbed energy. Fluorescence, as distinguished from phosphorescence, does not persist for an appreciable time after the termination of the excitation process

flu·o·res·cent : having or relating to fluorescence

fluoride gel carrier : a ancillary prosthesis which covers the teeth in either dental arch and is used to apply topical fluoride in close proximity to tooth enamel and dentin for several minutes daily. Generally considered essential for all patients with any natural dentition who undergo oral radiation therapy to assist in prevention of extensive secondary dental decay—syn FLUORIDE APPLICATOR

flux 1: in physics, the rate of flow of a liquid, particles or energy 2: in ceramics, an agent that lowers the fusion temperature of porcelain3: in metallurgy, a substance used to increase fluidity and to prevent or reduce oxidation of a molten metal 4: any substance applied to surfaces to be joined by brazing, soldering or welding to clean and free them from oxides and promote union

FMA: acronym for Frankfort Mandibular plane Angle

foil : an extremely thin, pliable sheet of metal, usually of variable thickness—see GOLD F., PLATINUM F., TINFOIL

force : an agency or influence that, when exerted on a body, tends to set the body into motion or to alter its present state of motion. Force applied to any material causing deformation of that material—see MASTICATORY F., OCCLUSAL F.

forces of mastication : the motive force created by the dynamic action of the muscles during the physiologic act of mastication (GPT-4)

1form : the shape or configuration of anything, as distinguished from its material

2form : to give shape, to mold, to adapt

for·nix for·ni·ces : an anatomical arch or fold

forward protrusion : a protrusion forward of centric position (GPT-3)

fossa , fossae : an anatomical pit, groove, or depression

foundation restoration : the core buildup portion of a natural tooth restoration

foveae palatinae : two small pits or depressions in the posterior aspect of the palatal mucosa, one on each side of the midline, at or near the attachment of the soft palate to the hard palate

1frac·ture : the process or act of breaking; state of being broken—see AVULSION F., BLOWOUT F., CEMENTUM F., CLOSED REDUCTION OF A F., COMMINUTED F., COMPLICATED F., DISLOCATED F., FIS


2frac·ture frac·tured frac·tur·ing : to cause a fracture in; to break, rupture, or tear

fracture strength : strength at fracture based on the original dimensions of the specimen

frame·work : 1. an interior or imbedded, openwork or structural frame used to support some other object or objects 2. the skeletal portion of prosthesis (usually metal, sometimes ceramic) around which and to which are attached the remaining portions of the prosthesis to produce a finished restoration —usage: for dental prostheses, the framework may be any metal or combination of metals or ceramic material, with various forms including designed slots, incorporated corrective angulation patterns etc. which provide rigidity to a dental prosthesis. Such a framework can be made in whole or made of component parts. Frequently used to anchor a prosthesis to natural teeth (by cementation) or dental implant abutments (by cementation, mechanical undercuts, screws) or both

Frankfort mandibular plane angle: eponym for the angle formed by the intersection of the Frankfort horizontal plane with the mandibular plane

Frankfort horizontal plane 1: eponym for a plane established by the lowest point on the margin of the right or left bony orbit and the highest point on the margin of the right or left bony auditory meatus 2: a horizontal plane represented in profile by a line between the lowest point on the margin of the orbit to the highest point on the margin of the auditory meatus; adopted at the 13th General Congress of German Anthropologists (the “Frankfort Agreement”) at Frankfort am Main, 1882, and finally by the International Agreement for the Unification of Craniometric and Cephalometric Measurements in Monaco in 1906; called also auriculo-orbital planeeye-ear plane, Frankfort horizontal (FH)Frankfort horizontal line


free gingival l: the part of the gingiva that surrounds the tooth and is not directly attached to the tooth surface

free gingival groove: the line demarcating the junction between free and attached gingival tissue

free gingival margin : the unattached gingiva surrounding the teeth in a collar-like fashion and demarcated from the attached gingiva by a shallow linear depression, termed the free gingival groove

free mandibular movement 1: any mandibular movement made without interference 2: any uninhibited movement of the mandible

free support: support that does not permit translation of the beam perpendicular to its axis and presumably offers no restraint to the tendency of the beam to rotate at the support (GPT-4)

freedom in intercuspal position: see INTERCUSPAL CONTACT AREA

freeway space obs: see INTEROCCLUSAL REST SPACE

frem·i·tus : a vibration perceptible on palpation; in dentistry, a vibration palpable when the teeth come into contact

frenectomy: surgical excision of a frenum

fren·u·lum : a connecting fold of membrane serving to support or retain a part

fren·um fren·ums or fre·na: see FRENULUM

frictional attachment : a precision or semiprecision attachment that achieves retention by metal to metal contact, without springs, clips or other mechanical means of retention—see PRECISION ATTACHMENT

friction retained pin : a metal rod driven into a hole drilled into dentin to enhance retention; retained solely by dentinal elasticity

1frit 1: the calcined or partly fused matter of which glass is made 2: a mass of fused porcelain obtained by firing the basic constituents and plunging them into water while hot. The frit is ground to make porcelain powders

2frit fri·tted frit·ing 1: to prepare substances for glass by heating; to fuse 2: to convert into a frit

frontal plane : any plane parallel with the long axis of the body and at right angles to the median plane, thus dividing the body into front and back parts. So called because this plane roughly parallels the frontal suture of the skull

fulcrum line 1. a theoretical line passing through the point around which a lever functions and at right angles to its path of movement2: an imaginary line, connecting occlusal rests, around which a partial removable dental prosthesis tends to rotate under masticatory forces. The determinants for the fulcrum line are usually the cross arch occlusal rests located adjacent to the tissue borne components—see F.L. OF A REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURE, RETENTIVE F.L.

fulcrum line of a removable dental prosthesis : a theoretical line around which a removable dental prosthesis tends to rotate

full denture: see COMPLETE DENTURE

full denture prosthetics 1: the replacement of the natural teeth in the arch and their associated parts by artificial substitutes 2: the art and science of the restoration of an edentulous mouth (GPT-4)—see COMPLETE DENTURE PROSTHODONTICS

full thickness graft : a transplant of epithelium consisting of skin or mucous membrane with a minimum of subcutaneous tissue

full veneer crown: see COMPLETE CROWN

fully adjustable articulator : an articulator that allows replication of three dimensional movement of recorded mandibular motion—called also Class IV articulator

fully adjustable gnathologic articulator : an articulator that allows replication of three dimensional movement plus timing of recorded mandibular motion—called also Class IV articulator

functional articulation : the occlusal contacts of the maxillary and mandibular teeth during mastication and deglutition

functional chew-in record : a record of the movements of the mandible made on the occluding surface of the opposing occlusion rim by teeth or scribing studs and produced by simulated chewing movements (GPT-4)

functional dislocation : dislocation of the articular disk of the temporomandibular joint due to a seriously impaired disk-condyle complex function

functional jaw orthopedics : use of orthodontic prostheses that rely on the patient’s own musculature for force application and that attempt to alter the skeletal structure of the face

functional mandibular movements’ : all normal, proper, or characteristic movements of the mandible made during speech, mastication, yawning, swallowing, and other associated movements

functional occlusal harmony : the occlusal relationship of opposing teeth in all functional ranges and movements that will provide the greatest masticatory efficiency without causing undue strain or trauma on the supporting tissues (GPT-4)

functional occlusion : the contacts of the maxillary and mandibular teeth during mastication and deglutition (GPT-4)

functional record : a record of lateral and protrusive movements of the mandible made on the surfaces of an occlusion rim or other recording surface

functional occlusal splint : a device that directs the movements of the mandible by controlling the plane and range of motion

functional wax: see DENTAL IMPRESSION WAX

functionally generated path : a registration of the paths of movement of the occlusal surfaces of teeth or occlusion rims of one dental arch in plastic or other media attached to the teeth or occlusal rims of the opposing arch

functioning condyle: see WORKING SIDE CONDYLE

fur·ca·tion : the anatomic region of a multirooted tooth where the roots diverge

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