X-Rays are defined as weightless package of pure energy (Photon) that are without electrical charge and that travel in waves along a straight line with a specific frequency and speed.
The Properties Of X-Ray are divided into 4 headings:
A) Physical Properties:
- X-Rays are electromagnetic radiations having a wavelength between 10A to 0.01A
- In Free Space they travel in a straight line
- Speed – 1,86,000 miles/sec (same as that of visible light)
- X-rays Cannot be Focused on a Single Point
- They are Invisible to Eye.
- Cannot be Heard
- Cannot be Smelt
- They cannot be Reflected, Refracted or Deflected by magnetic or Electric Field
- They show properties of Interference, Diffraction and Refraction similar to Visible light
- They Produce an Electric field at right angles to their path of propagation
- They Produce an Magnetic Field at right angles to the electric field and path of propagation.
- They donot require any medium for propagation
- Penetration: X-Rays can penetrate liquids, solids and gases. The degree of penetration depends on Quality, intensity and wavelength of Xyray beam.
- Absorption: X-Rays are absorbed by matter, the absorption depends on the anatomic structure of the matter and the wavelength of the xray beam.
- Ionizing Capability: X-rays interact with materials they penetrate and cause ionization
- Fluorescence: when X-Rays fall upon certain materials visible light will be emitted called fluorescence.
- X-Rays have the property of Attenuation, Absorption and Scattering
- They also show Heating effect
B) Chemical Properties:
- X-Ray induces colour changes of several substances or their solutions Ex: Methylene Blue gets Bleached
- X-Rays bring about chemical changes in solution because X-Rays produce highly active radical OH ions in water, which react with the solutes.
- X-Rays cause destruction of the fermenting powers of Enzymes
C) Biological Properties:
- The excitation property of X-Rays are used in treatment of malignant lesions.
- X-Rays also have a germicidal or bactericidal effect
- Somatic Effect: This ranges from simple Sun Burn to Severe dermatitis or to change in blood supply to malignancy
D) Physiochemical Property:
- X-rays are capable of producing an image on a photographic film