Parotid fascia is the superficial layer of deep cervical fascia which splits to enclose the parotid gland. The Fascia is made up of two layers – a Superficial layer or lat. Lamina superficials and a deeper layer or lat. Lamina Profunda. The Parotid fascia covering the lateral surface of the gland is called as parotid fascia. The parotid gland is the largest salivary gland in humans and it produces close to 30% of the saliva produced. It is a pyramidal shaped gland which only produces Serous saliva and not mucous saliva.
The parotid gland is located on either side of the face located in front of the ear (peri auricular area) and behind and upon the mandibular ramus. It is surrounded by masseter muscle and mandibular ramus anteriorly and superiorly by the external acoustic meatus along with the mandibular condyle. Mastoid process of the temporal bone is located posteriorly and the sternocleidomastoid muscle, the angular tract of Eisler is located inferior to the Parotid Gland.
The Parotid fascia sends numerous septae passing among the lobules of glandular tissue. Parotid fascia continues or extends anteriorly as the Superficial layer of Deep Cervical Fascia.
Borders of Parotid Fascia:
Superiorly: Parotid fascia is fused to zygoma.
Inferiorly: Parotid fascia continues inferiorly as Deep cervical fascia.
Posteriorly: Parotid fascia is fused to Acoustic meatus and to the anterior borders of Sternocleidomastoid muscle.
Anteriorly: Parotid fascia continues to invest into masseter anteriorly.
The deep fascia of the medial side is thinner and continues with the fascia of styloid muscle. Parotid fascia forms a part of stylomandibular ligament before fusing with the fascia of the digastric muscle and the periosteum at the angle of the mandible.