GPT Terms – K

ka·olin : fine, usually white, clay that is used in ceramics and refractory materials as a filler or extender

keep·er : any one of various devices used for keeping something in position—usage: in dentistry, this is usually construed to mean a magnetized alloy attached to one element of a restoration to which a magnet may adhere

Kelly’s syndrome [Ellsworth Kelly, U.S. prosthodontist]: see COMBINATION SYNDROME

Kelvin temperature [Thomson W. (Lord Kelvin), Scottish mathematician and physicist (1824-1907)]: absolute temperature indicated by the symbol K. Zero Kelvin =273° C

Kennedy bar [Edward Kennedy, U.S. dental surgeon]: see CONTINUOUS BAR CONNECTOR

Kennedy bar connector [Edward Kennedy, U.S. dental surgeon]: see CONTINUOUS BAR CONNECTOR

Kennedy classification of removable partial dentures [Edward Kennedy, U.S. dental surgeon, variably dated 1923, 1925, and 1928]: a classification of partially edentulous arches divisible into four classes. Class 1: a bilateral edentulous areas located posterior to the remaining natural teeth. Class II: a unilateral edentulous area located posterior to the remaining natural teeth. Class III: a unilateral edentulous area with natural teeth located both anterior and posterior to it. Class IV: a single bilateral edentulous area located anterior to the remaining natural teeth. Edentulous areas, in addition to those determining the main types, were designated as modification spaces. O. C. Applegate’s Rules govern application of the Kennedy system

ker·a·tin : a protein present in all cuticular (cornified) structures of the body, such as hair, epidermis, horns, and the organic matrix of the enamel of the teeth

ker·a·tin·i·za·tion : the process of maturation of keratinocytes. The formation of a protein layer (keratin) on the surface of some epithelia

keratinized gingival : the oral surface of the gingiva extending from the mucogingival junction to the gingival margin. In gingival health, the coronal portion of the sulcular epithelium may also be keratinized. The pattern of keratinization may be ortho-or para

key and keyway attachment: see ATTACHMENT

key·way : an interlock using a matrix and patrix between the units of a fixed dental prosthesis. It may serve two functions: 1) to hold the pontic in the proper relationship to the edentulous ridge and the opposing teeth during occlusal adjustment on the working cast (during application of any veneering material) and 2) to reinforce the connector after soldering

kinematic axis : the transverse horizontal axis connecting the rotational centers of the right and left condyles

kinematic facebow : a facebow with adjustable caliper ends used to locate the transverse horizontal axis of the mandible

kinematics : the phase of mechanics that deals with the possible motions of a material body

Kingsley splint : eponym for a maxillary splint used to apply traction to reduce and immobilize maxillary fractures and immobilize them through wings attached to a head device by elastics. C. L. Goddard cites Dr. Kingsley as first using “the occipital appliance” in 1866

Knoop hardness number: (KHN) a measure of hardness obtained with a diamond pyramid indenter and rhombic base with included angles of 172.5° and 130°. KHN is the ratio of the applied load to the area of the indentation

Knoop hardness tests [Frederick Knoop, U.S. engineer, U.S. Department of Commerce]: eponym for a surface hardness test using a diamond stylus. It is used for harder materials and is characterized by the diamond or rhomboid shaped indentation. The indentation micro-hardness test uses a rhombic-based pyramidal diamond indenter. The long diagonal of the resulting indentation is measured to determine the hardness. This test is suitable for most classes of materials including brittle and elastomeric

Kubelka-Munk scattering coefficient [authors unknown]: eponym for the multiple (diffuse) scattering coefficient for a unit of thickness and concentration of scattering material in a medium of a different refractive index as used in the Kubelka-Munk Equation. It is the rate of increase of reflectance of a layer over black, as thickness is increased. Hence, the assumption is made that the entire scattering is in the backward or reverse direction from that of the incident diffuse light

Kubelka-Munk theory [authors unknown]: eponym for a theory describing the optical behavior of materials containing small particles that scatter and absorb radiant energy. It is widely used for color matching

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